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Personal profile

Description of research and teaching

I have been professor of silviculture / applied ecology at the department since 2005. My research field is production ecology, and my special interests are in understanding how trees capture resources and how they allocate them to form a spectrum of structures that appear so well adapted to the prevailing environment.

At the department I lead the Forest Modelling Research Group which develops theories and models of tree function, structure, and growth, and applies these to questions relevant to forest management under changing environmental conditions and alternative management objectives. The group is also part of the Centre of Excellence in Atmospheric Science.

My basic degree is in systems theory from Helsinki University of Technology (now Aalto University) and my PhD is in forestry. Before my current post, I worked in different research and teaching positions at the department, apart from some years abroad.


  • 4112 Forestry

International and National Collaboration Publications and projects within past five years.

Publications 1979 2019

Comparison of population-based algorithms for optimizing thinnings and rotation using a process-based growth model

Xue, H., Mäkelä-Carter, A. A., Vanclay, J., Valsta, L. T. & Cao, T., 26 Feb 2019, In : Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research. 34, 4, 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Seedling emergence in uneven-aged Norway spruce stands in Finland

Kuusinen, N., Valkonen, S., Berninger, F. & Makela, A., 3 Apr 2019, In : Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research. 34, 3, p. 200-207 8 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Skenaarioanalyysi metsien kehitystä kuvaavien mallien ennusteiden yhtäläisyyksistä ja eroista

Kalliokoski, T., Heinonen, T., Holder, J., Lehtonen, A., Mäkelä, A., Minunno, F., Ollikainen, M., Packalen, T., Peltoniemi, M., Pukkala, T., Salminen, O., Schelhaas, M-J., Seppälä, J., Vauhkonen, J. & Kanninen, M., 2019, Suomen ilmastopaneeli. 88 p.

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned reportProfessional

Open Access

Decomposing sources of uncertainty in climate change projections of boreal forest primary production

Kalliokoski, T., Makela, A., Fronzek, S., Minunno, F. & Peltoniemi, M., 15 Nov 2018, In : Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 262, p. 192-205 14 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

New insights into the covariation of stomatal, mesophyll and hydraulic conductances from optimization models incorporating nonstomatal limitations to photosynthesis

Dewar, R., Mauranen, A., Makela, A., Holtta, T., Medlyn, B. & Vesala, T., Jan 2018, In : New Phytologist. 217, 2, p. 571-585 15 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Projects 1981 2021

Forestflux: Forest Carbon Flux and Storage Mapping Service

Mäkelä-Carter, A. A. & Minunno, F.


Project: Other projectDevelopment


IUFRO Scientific Achievement Award

Aino Annikki Mäkelä-Carter (Recipient), 2014

Prize: Prizes and awards

Activities 1991 2018

The role of old growth forests in carbon sequestration – do we know enough for scenario modelling?

Annikki Mäkelä (Invited speaker)

Activity: Talk or presentation typesInvited talk

Meeting: New Frontiers in Forecasting Forests

Annikki Mäkelä (Keynote speaker)
26 Sep 2018

Activity: Talk or presentation typesInvited talk

Expert Committee for the position as Professor/Associate Professor in forest ecology (Event)

Annikki Mäkelä (Board member)

Activity: Membership typesAssessment of candidates for academic posts

Opponent of doctoral dissertation of Laith Al Rahahleh

Annikki Mäkelä (Opponent)
23 Nov 2018

Activity: Examination typesOpponent of doctoral dissertation

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Annikki Mäkelä (Visiting researcher)
5 Feb 20189 Feb 2018

Activity: Visiting an external institution typesAcademic visit to other institution