A comparative study of variations in arithmetic fluency between Norwegian and Finnish third graders

Tonje Funderud, Riikka Mononen, Jelena Radišić , Anu Laine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


The study aimed to investigate variations in addition and subtraction fluency by observing grade three students in Norway (n = 253, M-age = 8.38 y.) and Finland (n = 209, M-age = 9.35 y.) while controlling for their age and non-verbal reasoning. Gender differences were also examined. The focus of the study was on the performance of the low-achieving (LA) students in comparison to the typically achieving (TA) group, not neglecting differences in how early educational support was organised across the two countries. Two-minute speed tests in both addition and subtraction within the 1-20 number range were used to assess fluency. The Finnish students outperformed students in the Norwegian sample both in addition and subtraction fluency. There were more Norwegian students in the LA group (i.e. performance at or below the 25th percentile) in both addition (37.9% vs. 20.1%) and subtraction (39.1% vs. 15.8%). In comparison to the TA students, the LA students made more errors and skipped over more arithmetic tasks in an attempt to solve them. Observed differences are discussed in relation to both country characteristics concerning early mathematics education and early educational support.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Special Needs Education
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)572-585
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 20 Oct 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • 516 Educational sciences
  • Arithmetic fluency
  • arithmetic skills
  • comparative study
  • low achievers
  • third grade students
  • FACT

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