A future of journalism beyond the objectivity-dialogue divide? Hybridity in the news of entrepreneurial journalists

Juho Ruotsalainen, Jaana Hujanen, Mikko Villi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


As pioneers of new ideas and practices, many entrepreneurial journalists spearhead the change of journalism towards hybridity. By applying appraisal theory, this article examines a hybrid of objectivity and dialogue in daily news articles by five entrepreneurial journalism outlets – Axios, MustRead, National Observer, The Skimm and the Voice of San Diego. For comparative purposes, a dataset from three legacy media outlets was also analysed. The results show that the entrepreneurial journalism outlets employ journalistic dialogue in otherwise stylistically objective news texts notably more often than do legacy media outlets. Dialogic registers provide subtle, non-partisan assessments of events and issues and make the news more informal. Such a hybrid form of journalism serves the functions of sense-making, establishing an interpersonal connection between ‘private’ audiences and ‘public’ news, and connecting journalism with fields outside of its core. By doing so, the hybrid journalism of entrepreneurial journalists offers a distinctive vision of the futures of news journalism.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1464884919867216
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jul 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • Appraisal theory
  • dialogue
  • entrepreneurial journalism
  • future of journalism
  • hybrid journalism
  • objectivity
  • 518 Media and communications

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