Antibacterial potential of the Rubiaceae species Xeromphis nilotica (Stapf) and Gardenia lutea Fresen
Salih Enass1,2,*, Kanninen Markku2, Luukkanen Olavi2, Vuorela Heikki1, Fyhrquist Pia1
1 Faculty of Pharmacy, Division of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Viikki Biocenter, PO Box 56, FIN-
00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
2 Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Forest Sciences, Viikki Tropical Resources
Institute (VITRI), PO Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland

Introduction: Xeromphis nilotica Stapf and Gardenia lutea Fresen are lowland savannah shrub species and occur naturally in Central and East Africa. In Sudan, the root bark and leaves of both species are used traditionally as decoctions and water extracts for treatment bacterial infections, fever symptoms, stomach pain and parasitic worms such as schistosomiasis-transmitting snails1. Iridoid
and coumarin derivatives have been identified from X. nilotica and G lutea, but these compounds have not been investigated for their antimicrobial effects [1, 2].
Aim of the Study: The plant species were chosen for antibacterial screenings since there exists only scanty information on G. lutea in this respect [2] and no information on X. nilotica.

Materials and Methods: Plant samples were extracted using solvent partition and traditional methods (decoctions). The growth inhibitory effects of extracts from different plant parts were assessed against one gram-negative and two gram-positive bacteria using an agar diffusion method [3].

Results and Discussion: The most promising antibacterial effects were obtained with an acetone extract of the root of X. nilotica against Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus epidermidis (IZ 38.7mm), followed by water decoctions and methanol extracts of the bark of X. nilotica (IZ 24.7mm and 28.3mm, respectively). A methanol extract of the bark and an acetone extract of the root of G. lutea were effective against M. luteus (IZ 28mm) and S. epidermidis (IZ 26 and 30mm), whereas hot water decoctions of roots were less effective (IZ 17.7mm). The acetone extracts of the roots of both plants were less active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (IZ 17 mm) whereas methanol extracts of
both species gave better activity (IZ 22.7mm and 20.7, respectively).

Conclusions: Polar extracts of X. nilotica and G. lutea show good antibacterial activity and our results justify the traditional use of decoctions and water extracts of these plants for treatment of bacterial infections.

[1] Farid, H., et al. Monatshefte für Chemie / Chemical Monthly. 2002; 133(11): 1453-1458.
[2] Parmar, V., et al. J Sci Ind Res. 2000; 59: 893–903.
[3] Fyhrquist, P., et al. S Afr. J Bot.2014; 90: 1–16.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2019
MoE publication typeNot Eligible
EventXXIII th Phytopharm Congress - Saint-Petersburg, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation
Duration: 1 Jul 20193 Jul 2019
Conference number: XXIII


ConferenceXXIII th Phytopharm Congress
Abbreviated titlePhytopharm
Country/TerritoryRussian Federation
Internet address

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Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy (Indexed )

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