Application of the European Test of Olfactory Capabilities in patients with olfactory impairment

P. Joussain, M. Bessy, F. Faure, D. Bellil, B.N. Landis, M. Hugentobler, H. Tuorila, S. Mustonen, S. Vento, F. Delphin-Combe, P. Krolak-Salmon, C. Rouby, M. Bensafi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

A central issue in olfaction concerns the characterization of loss of olfactory function: partial (hyposmia) or total (anosmia). This paper reports the application in a clinical setting of the European Test of Olfactory Capabilities (ETOC), combining odor detection and identification. The study included three phases. In phase 1, anosmics, hyposmics and controls were tested with the 16-items version of the ETOC. In phase 2, a short version of the ETOC was developed: patients with and controls without olfactory impairment were tested on a 6-items ETOC. In phase 3, to predict olfactory impairments in new individuals, the 16-items ETOC was administered on samples of young and older adults, and the 6-items version was applied in samples of young, elderly participants and Alzheimer patients. In phase 1, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of ETOC scores classified patients and controls with 87.5 % accuracy. In phase 2, LDA provided 84 % correct classification. Results of phase 3 revealed: (1) 16-items ETOC: whereas in young adults, 10 % were classified as hyposmic and 90 % as normosmic, in elderly, 1 % were classified as anosmic, 39 % hyposmic and 60 % normosmic; (2) 6-items ETOC: 15 % of the young adults were classified as having olfactory impairment, compared to 28 % in the older group and 83 % in Alzheimer patients. In conclusion, the ETOC enables characterizing the prevalence of olfactory impairment in young subjects and in normal and pathological aging. Whereas the 16-items ETOC is more discriminant, the short ETOC may provide a fast (5–10 min) tool to assess olfaction in clinical settings.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Volume273
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)381-390
Number of pages10
ISSN0937-4477
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • 3125 Otorhinolaryngology, ophthalmology

Cite this

Joussain, P., Bessy, M., Faure, F., Bellil, D., Landis, B. N., Hugentobler, M., ... Bensafi, M. (2016). Application of the European Test of Olfactory Capabilities in patients with olfactory impairment. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 273(2), 381-390. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-015-3536-6
Joussain, P. ; Bessy, M. ; Faure, F. ; Bellil, D. ; Landis, B.N. ; Hugentobler, M. ; Tuorila, H. ; Mustonen, S. ; Vento, S. ; Delphin-Combe, F. ; Krolak-Salmon, P. ; Rouby, C. ; Bensafi, M. / Application of the European Test of Olfactory Capabilities in patients with olfactory impairment. In: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology. 2016 ; Vol. 273, No. 2. pp. 381-390.
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title = "Application of the European Test of Olfactory Capabilities in patients with olfactory impairment",
abstract = "A central issue in olfaction concerns the characterization of loss of olfactory function: partial (hyposmia) or total (anosmia). This paper reports the application in a clinical setting of the European Test of Olfactory Capabilities (ETOC), combining odor detection and identification. The study included three phases. In phase 1, anosmics, hyposmics and controls were tested with the 16-items version of the ETOC. In phase 2, a short version of the ETOC was developed: patients with and controls without olfactory impairment were tested on a 6-items ETOC. In phase 3, to predict olfactory impairments in new individuals, the 16-items ETOC was administered on samples of young and older adults, and the 6-items version was applied in samples of young, elderly participants and Alzheimer patients. In phase 1, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of ETOC scores classified patients and controls with 87.5 {\%} accuracy. In phase 2, LDA provided 84 {\%} correct classification. Results of phase 3 revealed: (1) 16-items ETOC: whereas in young adults, 10 {\%} were classified as hyposmic and 90 {\%} as normosmic, in elderly, 1 {\%} were classified as anosmic, 39 {\%} hyposmic and 60 {\%} normosmic; (2) 6-items ETOC: 15 {\%} of the young adults were classified as having olfactory impairment, compared to 28 {\%} in the older group and 83 {\%} in Alzheimer patients. In conclusion, the ETOC enables characterizing the prevalence of olfactory impairment in young subjects and in normal and pathological aging. Whereas the 16-items ETOC is more discriminant, the short ETOC may provide a fast (5–10 min) tool to assess olfaction in clinical settings.",
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Joussain, P, Bessy, M, Faure, F, Bellil, D, Landis, BN, Hugentobler, M, Tuorila, H, Mustonen, S, Vento, S, Delphin-Combe, F, Krolak-Salmon, P, Rouby, C & Bensafi, M 2016, 'Application of the European Test of Olfactory Capabilities in patients with olfactory impairment', European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, vol. 273, no. 2, pp. 381-390. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00405-015-3536-6

Application of the European Test of Olfactory Capabilities in patients with olfactory impairment. / Joussain, P. ; Bessy, M.; Faure, F. ; Bellil, D. ; Landis, B.N.; Hugentobler, M. ; Tuorila, H.; Mustonen, S.; Vento, S.; Delphin-Combe, F.; Krolak-Salmon, P.; Rouby, C.; Bensafi, M.

In: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Vol. 273, No. 2, 2016, p. 381-390.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Application of the European Test of Olfactory Capabilities in patients with olfactory impairment

AU - Joussain, P.

AU - Bessy, M.

AU - Faure, F.

AU - Bellil, D.

AU - Landis, B.N.

AU - Hugentobler, M.

AU - Tuorila, H.

AU - Mustonen, S.

AU - Vento, S.

AU - Delphin-Combe, F.

AU - Krolak-Salmon, P.

AU - Rouby, C.

AU - Bensafi, M.

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - A central issue in olfaction concerns the characterization of loss of olfactory function: partial (hyposmia) or total (anosmia). This paper reports the application in a clinical setting of the European Test of Olfactory Capabilities (ETOC), combining odor detection and identification. The study included three phases. In phase 1, anosmics, hyposmics and controls were tested with the 16-items version of the ETOC. In phase 2, a short version of the ETOC was developed: patients with and controls without olfactory impairment were tested on a 6-items ETOC. In phase 3, to predict olfactory impairments in new individuals, the 16-items ETOC was administered on samples of young and older adults, and the 6-items version was applied in samples of young, elderly participants and Alzheimer patients. In phase 1, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of ETOC scores classified patients and controls with 87.5 % accuracy. In phase 2, LDA provided 84 % correct classification. Results of phase 3 revealed: (1) 16-items ETOC: whereas in young adults, 10 % were classified as hyposmic and 90 % as normosmic, in elderly, 1 % were classified as anosmic, 39 % hyposmic and 60 % normosmic; (2) 6-items ETOC: 15 % of the young adults were classified as having olfactory impairment, compared to 28 % in the older group and 83 % in Alzheimer patients. In conclusion, the ETOC enables characterizing the prevalence of olfactory impairment in young subjects and in normal and pathological aging. Whereas the 16-items ETOC is more discriminant, the short ETOC may provide a fast (5–10 min) tool to assess olfaction in clinical settings.

AB - A central issue in olfaction concerns the characterization of loss of olfactory function: partial (hyposmia) or total (anosmia). This paper reports the application in a clinical setting of the European Test of Olfactory Capabilities (ETOC), combining odor detection and identification. The study included three phases. In phase 1, anosmics, hyposmics and controls were tested with the 16-items version of the ETOC. In phase 2, a short version of the ETOC was developed: patients with and controls without olfactory impairment were tested on a 6-items ETOC. In phase 3, to predict olfactory impairments in new individuals, the 16-items ETOC was administered on samples of young and older adults, and the 6-items version was applied in samples of young, elderly participants and Alzheimer patients. In phase 1, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of ETOC scores classified patients and controls with 87.5 % accuracy. In phase 2, LDA provided 84 % correct classification. Results of phase 3 revealed: (1) 16-items ETOC: whereas in young adults, 10 % were classified as hyposmic and 90 % as normosmic, in elderly, 1 % were classified as anosmic, 39 % hyposmic and 60 % normosmic; (2) 6-items ETOC: 15 % of the young adults were classified as having olfactory impairment, compared to 28 % in the older group and 83 % in Alzheimer patients. In conclusion, the ETOC enables characterizing the prevalence of olfactory impairment in young subjects and in normal and pathological aging. Whereas the 16-items ETOC is more discriminant, the short ETOC may provide a fast (5–10 min) tool to assess olfaction in clinical settings.

KW - 3125 Otorhinolaryngology, ophthalmology

U2 - 10.1007/s00405-015-3536-6

DO - 10.1007/s00405-015-3536-6

M3 - Article

VL - 273

SP - 381

EP - 390

JO - European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology

JF - European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology

SN - 0937-4477

IS - 2

ER -