Atomic Layer Deposition of Nickel Nitride Thin Films using NiCl2(TMPDA) and Tert‐Butylhydrazine as Precursors

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Abstract

This article describes the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of nickel nitride and nickel thin films using a diamine adduct of Ni(II) chloride, NiCl2(TMPDA) (TMPDA=N,N,N',N',-tetramethy1-1,3-propanediamine), as the metal precursor. Owing to the high reducing power of tert-butylhydrazine (TBH), the films are grown at low temperatures of 190-250 degrees C. This is one of the few low temperature ALD processes that can be used to grow Ni3N and Ni metal on both insulating and conductive substrates. The films are characterized in terms of crystallinity, morphology, composition, resistivity, and coercivity. Xray diffraction shows reflections compatible with either hexagonal Ni or Ni3N. Composition analyses suggest that the films are close to stoichiometric Ni3N. Despite the nitride component, the films exhibit low resistivity values and at the lowest, a resistivity of 37 RD cm is achieved. The result is lower than what is typically observed for NixN films and not much higher than the best results concerning ALD Ni metal. The nitrogen content of the films is lowered down to 1.2 at% by postdeposition reduction at 150 degrees C in 10% forming gas. After the reduction, the nonmagnetic nitride films are converted to ferromagnetic Ni metal.
Original languageEnglish
JournalPhysica Status Solidi. A: Applications and Materials Science
Volume216
Issue number11
Pages (from-to)1900058
Number of pages9
ISSN1862-6300
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • 114 Physical sciences

Cite this

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title = "Atomic Layer Deposition of Nickel Nitride Thin Films using NiCl2(TMPDA) and Tert‐Butylhydrazine as Precursors",
abstract = "This article describes the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of nickel nitride and nickel thin films using a diamine adduct of Ni(II) chloride, NiCl2(TMPDA) (TMPDA=N,N,N',N',-tetramethy1-1,3-propanediamine), as the metal precursor. Owing to the high reducing power of tert-butylhydrazine (TBH), the films are grown at low temperatures of 190-250 degrees C. This is one of the few low temperature ALD processes that can be used to grow Ni3N and Ni metal on both insulating and conductive substrates. The films are characterized in terms of crystallinity, morphology, composition, resistivity, and coercivity. Xray diffraction shows reflections compatible with either hexagonal Ni or Ni3N. Composition analyses suggest that the films are close to stoichiometric Ni3N. Despite the nitride component, the films exhibit low resistivity values and at the lowest, a resistivity of 37 RD cm is achieved. The result is lower than what is typically observed for NixN films and not much higher than the best results concerning ALD Ni metal. The nitrogen content of the films is lowered down to 1.2 at{\%} by postdeposition reduction at 150 degrees C in 10{\%} forming gas. After the reduction, the nonmagnetic nitride films are converted to ferromagnetic Ni metal.",
keywords = "114 Physical sciences",
author = "Katja V{\"a}yrynen and Timo Hatanp{\"a}{\"a} and Miika Mattinen and Heikkil{\"a}, {Mikko J.} and Kenichiro Mizohata and Jyrki R{\"a}is{\"a}nen and Joosep Link and Raivo Stern and Mikko Ritala and Markku Leskel{\"a}",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1002/pssa.201900058",
language = "English",
volume = "216",
pages = "1900058",
journal = "Physica Status Solidi. A: Applications and Materials Science",
issn = "1862-6300",
publisher = "Wiley-VCH",
number = "11",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Atomic Layer Deposition of Nickel Nitride Thin Films using NiCl2(TMPDA) and Tert‐Butylhydrazine as Precursors

AU - Väyrynen, Katja

AU - Hatanpää, Timo

AU - Mattinen, Miika

AU - Heikkilä, Mikko J.

AU - Mizohata, Kenichiro

AU - Räisänen, Jyrki

AU - Link, Joosep

AU - Stern, Raivo

AU - Ritala, Mikko

AU - Leskelä, Markku

PY - 2019/6

Y1 - 2019/6

N2 - This article describes the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of nickel nitride and nickel thin films using a diamine adduct of Ni(II) chloride, NiCl2(TMPDA) (TMPDA=N,N,N',N',-tetramethy1-1,3-propanediamine), as the metal precursor. Owing to the high reducing power of tert-butylhydrazine (TBH), the films are grown at low temperatures of 190-250 degrees C. This is one of the few low temperature ALD processes that can be used to grow Ni3N and Ni metal on both insulating and conductive substrates. The films are characterized in terms of crystallinity, morphology, composition, resistivity, and coercivity. Xray diffraction shows reflections compatible with either hexagonal Ni or Ni3N. Composition analyses suggest that the films are close to stoichiometric Ni3N. Despite the nitride component, the films exhibit low resistivity values and at the lowest, a resistivity of 37 RD cm is achieved. The result is lower than what is typically observed for NixN films and not much higher than the best results concerning ALD Ni metal. The nitrogen content of the films is lowered down to 1.2 at% by postdeposition reduction at 150 degrees C in 10% forming gas. After the reduction, the nonmagnetic nitride films are converted to ferromagnetic Ni metal.

AB - This article describes the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of nickel nitride and nickel thin films using a diamine adduct of Ni(II) chloride, NiCl2(TMPDA) (TMPDA=N,N,N',N',-tetramethy1-1,3-propanediamine), as the metal precursor. Owing to the high reducing power of tert-butylhydrazine (TBH), the films are grown at low temperatures of 190-250 degrees C. This is one of the few low temperature ALD processes that can be used to grow Ni3N and Ni metal on both insulating and conductive substrates. The films are characterized in terms of crystallinity, morphology, composition, resistivity, and coercivity. Xray diffraction shows reflections compatible with either hexagonal Ni or Ni3N. Composition analyses suggest that the films are close to stoichiometric Ni3N. Despite the nitride component, the films exhibit low resistivity values and at the lowest, a resistivity of 37 RD cm is achieved. The result is lower than what is typically observed for NixN films and not much higher than the best results concerning ALD Ni metal. The nitrogen content of the films is lowered down to 1.2 at% by postdeposition reduction at 150 degrees C in 10% forming gas. After the reduction, the nonmagnetic nitride films are converted to ferromagnetic Ni metal.

KW - 114 Physical sciences

U2 - 10.1002/pssa.201900058

DO - 10.1002/pssa.201900058

M3 - Article

VL - 216

SP - 1900058

JO - Physica Status Solidi. A: Applications and Materials Science

JF - Physica Status Solidi. A: Applications and Materials Science

SN - 1862-6300

IS - 11

ER -