Cascading trend of Early Paleozoic marine radiations paused by Late Ordovician extinctions

Christian M. Ø. Rasmussen, Björn Kröger, Morten L. Nielsen, Jorge Colmenar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

The greatest relative changes in marine biodiversity accumulation occurred during the Early Paleozoic. The precision of temporal constraints on these changes is crude, hampering our understanding of their timing, duration, and links to causal mechanisms. We match fossil occurrence data to their lithostratigraphical ranges in the Paleobiology Database and correlate this inferred taxon range to a constructed set of biostratigraphically defined high-resolution time slices. In addition, we apply capture-recapture modeling approaches to calculate a biodiversity curve that also considers taphonomy and sampling biases with four times better resolution of previous estimates. Our method reveals a stepwise biodiversity increase with distinct Cambrian and Ordovician radiation events that are clearly separated by a 50-million-year-long period of slow biodiversity accumulation. The Ordovician Radiation is confined to a 15-million-year phase after which the Late Ordovician extinctions lowered generic richness and further delayed a biodiversity rebound by at least 35 million years. Based on a first-differences approach on potential abiotic drivers controlling richness, we find an overall correlation with oxygen levels, with temperature also exhibiting a coordinated trend once equatorial sea surface temperatures fell to present-day levels during the Middle Ordovician Darriwilian Age. Contrary to the traditional view of the Late Ordovician extinctions, our study suggests a protracted crisis interval linked to intense volcanism during the middle Late Ordovician Katian Age. As richness levels did not return to prior levels during the Silurian-a time of continental amalgamation-we further argue that plate tectonics exerted an overarching control on biodiversity accumulation.

Original languageEnglish
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume116
Issue number15
Pages (from-to)7207-7213
Number of pages7
ISSN0027-8424
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Apr 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • AUSTRALIA
  • BIODIVERSITY
  • CLIMATE
  • DRIVER
  • Earth state shifts
  • LARGE IGNEOUS PROVINCE
  • MIDDLE
  • Ordovician radiation
  • SPECIATION
  • TAXONOMIC DIVERSITY
  • TRIGGER
  • VOLCANISM
  • biodiversity accumulation
  • capture-recapture
  • first differences
  • 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology

Cite this

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title = "Cascading trend of Early Paleozoic marine radiations paused by Late Ordovician extinctions",
abstract = "The greatest relative changes in marine biodiversity accumulation occurred during the Early Paleozoic. The precision of temporal constraints on these changes is crude, hampering our understanding of their timing, duration, and links to causal mechanisms. We match fossil occurrence data to their lithostratigraphical ranges in the Paleobiology Database and correlate this inferred taxon range to a constructed set of biostratigraphically defined high-resolution time slices. In addition, we apply capture-recapture modeling approaches to calculate a biodiversity curve that also considers taphonomy and sampling biases with four times better resolution of previous estimates. Our method reveals a stepwise biodiversity increase with distinct Cambrian and Ordovician radiation events that are clearly separated by a 50-million-year-long period of slow biodiversity accumulation. The Ordovician Radiation is confined to a 15-million-year phase after which the Late Ordovician extinctions lowered generic richness and further delayed a biodiversity rebound by at least 35 million years. Based on a first-differences approach on potential abiotic drivers controlling richness, we find an overall correlation with oxygen levels, with temperature also exhibiting a coordinated trend once equatorial sea surface temperatures fell to present-day levels during the Middle Ordovician Darriwilian Age. Contrary to the traditional view of the Late Ordovician extinctions, our study suggests a protracted crisis interval linked to intense volcanism during the middle Late Ordovician Katian Age. As richness levels did not return to prior levels during the Silurian-a time of continental amalgamation-we further argue that plate tectonics exerted an overarching control on biodiversity accumulation.",
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author = "Rasmussen, {Christian M. {\O}.} and Bj{\"o}rn Kr{\"o}ger and Nielsen, {Morten L.} and Jorge Colmenar",
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doi = "10.1073/pnas.1821123116",
language = "English",
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Cascading trend of Early Paleozoic marine radiations paused by Late Ordovician extinctions. / Rasmussen, Christian M. Ø.; Kröger, Björn; Nielsen, Morten L.; Colmenar, Jorge.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 116, No. 15, 09.04.2019, p. 7207-7213.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cascading trend of Early Paleozoic marine radiations paused by Late Ordovician extinctions

AU - Rasmussen, Christian M. Ø.

AU - Kröger, Björn

AU - Nielsen, Morten L.

AU - Colmenar, Jorge

PY - 2019/4/9

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N2 - The greatest relative changes in marine biodiversity accumulation occurred during the Early Paleozoic. The precision of temporal constraints on these changes is crude, hampering our understanding of their timing, duration, and links to causal mechanisms. We match fossil occurrence data to their lithostratigraphical ranges in the Paleobiology Database and correlate this inferred taxon range to a constructed set of biostratigraphically defined high-resolution time slices. In addition, we apply capture-recapture modeling approaches to calculate a biodiversity curve that also considers taphonomy and sampling biases with four times better resolution of previous estimates. Our method reveals a stepwise biodiversity increase with distinct Cambrian and Ordovician radiation events that are clearly separated by a 50-million-year-long period of slow biodiversity accumulation. The Ordovician Radiation is confined to a 15-million-year phase after which the Late Ordovician extinctions lowered generic richness and further delayed a biodiversity rebound by at least 35 million years. Based on a first-differences approach on potential abiotic drivers controlling richness, we find an overall correlation with oxygen levels, with temperature also exhibiting a coordinated trend once equatorial sea surface temperatures fell to present-day levels during the Middle Ordovician Darriwilian Age. Contrary to the traditional view of the Late Ordovician extinctions, our study suggests a protracted crisis interval linked to intense volcanism during the middle Late Ordovician Katian Age. As richness levels did not return to prior levels during the Silurian-a time of continental amalgamation-we further argue that plate tectonics exerted an overarching control on biodiversity accumulation.

AB - The greatest relative changes in marine biodiversity accumulation occurred during the Early Paleozoic. The precision of temporal constraints on these changes is crude, hampering our understanding of their timing, duration, and links to causal mechanisms. We match fossil occurrence data to their lithostratigraphical ranges in the Paleobiology Database and correlate this inferred taxon range to a constructed set of biostratigraphically defined high-resolution time slices. In addition, we apply capture-recapture modeling approaches to calculate a biodiversity curve that also considers taphonomy and sampling biases with four times better resolution of previous estimates. Our method reveals a stepwise biodiversity increase with distinct Cambrian and Ordovician radiation events that are clearly separated by a 50-million-year-long period of slow biodiversity accumulation. The Ordovician Radiation is confined to a 15-million-year phase after which the Late Ordovician extinctions lowered generic richness and further delayed a biodiversity rebound by at least 35 million years. Based on a first-differences approach on potential abiotic drivers controlling richness, we find an overall correlation with oxygen levels, with temperature also exhibiting a coordinated trend once equatorial sea surface temperatures fell to present-day levels during the Middle Ordovician Darriwilian Age. Contrary to the traditional view of the Late Ordovician extinctions, our study suggests a protracted crisis interval linked to intense volcanism during the middle Late Ordovician Katian Age. As richness levels did not return to prior levels during the Silurian-a time of continental amalgamation-we further argue that plate tectonics exerted an overarching control on biodiversity accumulation.

KW - AUSTRALIA

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KW - DRIVER

KW - Earth state shifts

KW - LARGE IGNEOUS PROVINCE

KW - MIDDLE

KW - Ordovician radiation

KW - SPECIATION

KW - TAXONOMIC DIVERSITY

KW - TRIGGER

KW - VOLCANISM

KW - biodiversity accumulation

KW - capture-recapture

KW - first differences

KW - 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology

U2 - 10.1073/pnas.1821123116

DO - 10.1073/pnas.1821123116

M3 - Article

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SP - 7207

EP - 7213

JO - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

SN - 0027-8424

IS - 15

ER -