Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the eighth human herpesvirus discovered in 1994 from Kaposi's sarcoma lesion of an AIDS patient. The strong molecular and epidemiological links associating KSHV with Kaposi's sarcoma and certain lymphoproliferative disorders indicate that KSHV is required for the development of these malignancies. Although KSHV is equipped to manipulate and deregulate several cellular signaling pathways, it is not yet understood how this leads to cell transformation. Profound understanding of the interplay of viral and cellular factors in KSHV-infected cells will provide valuable information on the mechanisms of viral tumorigenesis and enable development of efficient targeted therapies for virus-induced cancers. This review focuses on the cellular signaling pathways that KSHV gene products impinge on and discusses their putative contribution to tumorigenesis. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.