Complexities of Representation: Chinese Outbound Tourists as De Facto Ambassadors in Southern Africa

Obert Hodzi, Julie Yu-Wen Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Exploring the representational effect of tourism, this study examines factors that influence perceptions that Chinese outbound tourists are representatives or de facto ambassadors of the Chinese government advancing its national objectives abroad. The paper finds that the Chinese government is ambivalent, and at times inconsistent about endowing individual tourists with the responsibility to serve as its de facto ambassadors. In addition, the paper argues that the role of tourism in China’s bilateral relations with South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe influence general perceptions among bureaucrats and elites in the three countries that Chinese outbound tourists are representatives of the Chinese government.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of China and International Relations
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 27 Mar 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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