Cyberharassment Victimization on Three Continents: An Integrative Approach

Marko Mikkola, Noora Ellonen, Markus Kaakinen, Iina Savolainen, Anu Sirola, Izabela Zych, Hye Jin Paek, Atte Oksanen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


This article introduces and applies an integrative model of cyberharassment victimization. The model combines routine activity theory (RAT), the general theory of crime (GTC), and the personal resources approach to analyze risk factors for victimization while acknowledging the protective role of a sense of mastery. Survey respondents were aged 15 to 25 years (N = 4816) from the U.S., Finland, Spain, and South Korea. Logistic regression models were used to analyze cyberharassment victimization. RAT-related factors were positively associated with cyberharassment victimization. Low self-control was positively associated with cyberharassment victimization in the U.S., Finland, and Spain but not in South Korea. The sense of mastery was negatively associated with cyberharassment victimization in the U.S., Finland, and South Korea but not in Spain. Protective factors against cyberharassment victimization should be utilized in future studies as adequate knowledge of protective factors could assist policymakers in generating preventative measures against cyberharassment. Our study demonstrates the benefits of integrating criminological theories and protective factors in studies using cross-national data to gain a better understanding of the dynamics of cyberharassment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12138
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • cyberharassment
  • general theory of crime
  • routine activity theory
  • sense of mastery
  • victimization
  • 513 Law

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