Delays in the treatment of status epilepticus - effect on outcome

Research output: ThesisDoctoral ThesisCollection of Articles

Abstract

Status epilepticus (SE), i.e. prolonged epileptic seizure, is a life-threatening medical emergency, which is associated with high mortality and morbidity. International guidelines suggest early and efficient treatment. Thus, long duration of SE is one of the main predictors of poor prognosis and the only prognostic factor that can be affected by shortening the delays in the treatment. However, studies on delays, implementation of treatment guidelines and the effect of delays on outcome are scarce. The aim of this thesis was to systematically investigate delays in the treatment of SE and factors related to the delays along the whole treatment chain. We also aimed at clarifying the effect of delays on the outcome and at identifying the significant delays related to outcome in order to propose evidence-based targets for streamlining the SE treatment protocol. The material of this retrospective study consists of 82 consecutive SE patients treated in a tertiary hospital emergency department over two years. Delays, patient characteristics and parameters related to treatment chain were identified and their relations, correlations and effects were investigated. The results of this thesis reveal that the delays in the treatment of SE are unacceptably long and exceed markedly the suggested time frames in the guidelines. Fulfilment of the suggested SE treatment algorithm is frequently hampered by failing recognition of SE at onset, also by professionals, which may increase the delays in consecutive parts of the treatment chain. Delays seem to be more significant determinants of SE duration than previously established outcome predictors. Additionally, various long delays in the treatment (second- and third-stage medication, diagnostic and tertiary hospital delays) increase the risk of mortality and poor functional outcome at hospital discharge and since the predictive cut-off point of these delays lies under 2,5 hours, the focus of protocol streamlining should be in the pre-hospital phase of the treatment. However, none of the delays are independent risk factors for poor outcome, which reflects the dynamism of SE, but also demonstrates that every step of the treatment chain needs to be optimized. In conclusion, we propose that generation of simplified criteria for suspicion of an imminent SE and streamlining pre-hospital treatment chain are advocated. We suggest amendments to the protocol, such as triaging suspected SE patients with highest priority, recruiting physician-based EMS units upon primary alarm, administration of second-stage medication out-of-hospital and transportation of SE patients exclusively to hospitals with neurological expertise. Also improvement of diagnostic possibilities on emergency site should be considered.
Original languageEnglish
Supervisors/Advisors
  • Soinila, Seppo, Supervisor
Place of PublicationHelsinki
Publisher
Print ISBNs978-951-51-4172-9
Electronic ISBNs978-951-51-4173-6
Publication statusPublished - 2018
MoE publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)

Fields of Science

  • Status Epilepticus
  • +classification
  • +mortality
  • +therapy
  • Epilepsy, Generalized
  • Drug Resistant Epilepsy
  • Time Factors
  • Diazepam
  • Phenytoin
  • Delayed Diagnosis
  • 3112 Neurosciences
  • 3124 Neurology and psychiatry

Cite this

@phdthesis{de0e183c98244aa4b5d7e4782475bb65,
title = "Delays in the treatment of status epilepticus - effect on outcome",
abstract = "Status epilepticus (SE), i.e. prolonged epileptic seizure, is a life-threatening medical emergency, which is associated with high mortality and morbidity. International guidelines suggest early and efficient treatment. Thus, long duration of SE is one of the main predictors of poor prognosis and the only prognostic factor that can be affected by shortening the delays in the treatment. However, studies on delays, implementation of treatment guidelines and the effect of delays on outcome are scarce. The aim of this thesis was to systematically investigate delays in the treatment of SE and factors related to the delays along the whole treatment chain. We also aimed at clarifying the effect of delays on the outcome and at identifying the significant delays related to outcome in order to propose evidence-based targets for streamlining the SE treatment protocol. The material of this retrospective study consists of 82 consecutive SE patients treated in a tertiary hospital emergency department over two years. Delays, patient characteristics and parameters related to treatment chain were identified and their relations, correlations and effects were investigated. The results of this thesis reveal that the delays in the treatment of SE are unacceptably long and exceed markedly the suggested time frames in the guidelines. Fulfilment of the suggested SE treatment algorithm is frequently hampered by failing recognition of SE at onset, also by professionals, which may increase the delays in consecutive parts of the treatment chain. Delays seem to be more significant determinants of SE duration than previously established outcome predictors. Additionally, various long delays in the treatment (second- and third-stage medication, diagnostic and tertiary hospital delays) increase the risk of mortality and poor functional outcome at hospital discharge and since the predictive cut-off point of these delays lies under 2,5 hours, the focus of protocol streamlining should be in the pre-hospital phase of the treatment. However, none of the delays are independent risk factors for poor outcome, which reflects the dynamism of SE, but also demonstrates that every step of the treatment chain needs to be optimized. In conclusion, we propose that generation of simplified criteria for suspicion of an imminent SE and streamlining pre-hospital treatment chain are advocated. We suggest amendments to the protocol, such as triaging suspected SE patients with highest priority, recruiting physician-based EMS units upon primary alarm, administration of second-stage medication out-of-hospital and transportation of SE patients exclusively to hospitals with neurological expertise. Also improvement of diagnostic possibilities on emergency site should be considered.",
keywords = "Status Epilepticus, +classification, +mortality, +therapy, Epilepsy, Generalized, Drug Resistant Epilepsy, Time Factors, Diazepam, Phenytoin, Delayed Diagnosis, 3112 Neurosciences, 3124 Neurology and psychiatry",
author = "Leena K{\"a}mppi",
note = "M1 - 100 s. + liitteet",
year = "2018",
language = "English",
isbn = "978-951-51-4172-9",
publisher = "[L. K{\"a}mppi]",
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Delays in the treatment of status epilepticus - effect on outcome. / Kämppi, Leena.

Helsinki : [L. Kämppi], 2018. 100 p.

Research output: ThesisDoctoral ThesisCollection of Articles

TY - THES

T1 - Delays in the treatment of status epilepticus - effect on outcome

AU - Kämppi, Leena

N1 - M1 - 100 s. + liitteet

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Status epilepticus (SE), i.e. prolonged epileptic seizure, is a life-threatening medical emergency, which is associated with high mortality and morbidity. International guidelines suggest early and efficient treatment. Thus, long duration of SE is one of the main predictors of poor prognosis and the only prognostic factor that can be affected by shortening the delays in the treatment. However, studies on delays, implementation of treatment guidelines and the effect of delays on outcome are scarce. The aim of this thesis was to systematically investigate delays in the treatment of SE and factors related to the delays along the whole treatment chain. We also aimed at clarifying the effect of delays on the outcome and at identifying the significant delays related to outcome in order to propose evidence-based targets for streamlining the SE treatment protocol. The material of this retrospective study consists of 82 consecutive SE patients treated in a tertiary hospital emergency department over two years. Delays, patient characteristics and parameters related to treatment chain were identified and their relations, correlations and effects were investigated. The results of this thesis reveal that the delays in the treatment of SE are unacceptably long and exceed markedly the suggested time frames in the guidelines. Fulfilment of the suggested SE treatment algorithm is frequently hampered by failing recognition of SE at onset, also by professionals, which may increase the delays in consecutive parts of the treatment chain. Delays seem to be more significant determinants of SE duration than previously established outcome predictors. Additionally, various long delays in the treatment (second- and third-stage medication, diagnostic and tertiary hospital delays) increase the risk of mortality and poor functional outcome at hospital discharge and since the predictive cut-off point of these delays lies under 2,5 hours, the focus of protocol streamlining should be in the pre-hospital phase of the treatment. However, none of the delays are independent risk factors for poor outcome, which reflects the dynamism of SE, but also demonstrates that every step of the treatment chain needs to be optimized. In conclusion, we propose that generation of simplified criteria for suspicion of an imminent SE and streamlining pre-hospital treatment chain are advocated. We suggest amendments to the protocol, such as triaging suspected SE patients with highest priority, recruiting physician-based EMS units upon primary alarm, administration of second-stage medication out-of-hospital and transportation of SE patients exclusively to hospitals with neurological expertise. Also improvement of diagnostic possibilities on emergency site should be considered.

AB - Status epilepticus (SE), i.e. prolonged epileptic seizure, is a life-threatening medical emergency, which is associated with high mortality and morbidity. International guidelines suggest early and efficient treatment. Thus, long duration of SE is one of the main predictors of poor prognosis and the only prognostic factor that can be affected by shortening the delays in the treatment. However, studies on delays, implementation of treatment guidelines and the effect of delays on outcome are scarce. The aim of this thesis was to systematically investigate delays in the treatment of SE and factors related to the delays along the whole treatment chain. We also aimed at clarifying the effect of delays on the outcome and at identifying the significant delays related to outcome in order to propose evidence-based targets for streamlining the SE treatment protocol. The material of this retrospective study consists of 82 consecutive SE patients treated in a tertiary hospital emergency department over two years. Delays, patient characteristics and parameters related to treatment chain were identified and their relations, correlations and effects were investigated. The results of this thesis reveal that the delays in the treatment of SE are unacceptably long and exceed markedly the suggested time frames in the guidelines. Fulfilment of the suggested SE treatment algorithm is frequently hampered by failing recognition of SE at onset, also by professionals, which may increase the delays in consecutive parts of the treatment chain. Delays seem to be more significant determinants of SE duration than previously established outcome predictors. Additionally, various long delays in the treatment (second- and third-stage medication, diagnostic and tertiary hospital delays) increase the risk of mortality and poor functional outcome at hospital discharge and since the predictive cut-off point of these delays lies under 2,5 hours, the focus of protocol streamlining should be in the pre-hospital phase of the treatment. However, none of the delays are independent risk factors for poor outcome, which reflects the dynamism of SE, but also demonstrates that every step of the treatment chain needs to be optimized. In conclusion, we propose that generation of simplified criteria for suspicion of an imminent SE and streamlining pre-hospital treatment chain are advocated. We suggest amendments to the protocol, such as triaging suspected SE patients with highest priority, recruiting physician-based EMS units upon primary alarm, administration of second-stage medication out-of-hospital and transportation of SE patients exclusively to hospitals with neurological expertise. Also improvement of diagnostic possibilities on emergency site should be considered.

KW - Status Epilepticus

KW - +classification

KW - +mortality

KW - +therapy

KW - Epilepsy, Generalized

KW - Drug Resistant Epilepsy

KW - Time Factors

KW - Diazepam

KW - Phenytoin

KW - Delayed Diagnosis

KW - 3112 Neurosciences

KW - 3124 Neurology and psychiatry

M3 - Doctoral Thesis

SN - 978-951-51-4172-9

PB - [L. Kämppi]

CY - Helsinki

ER -