Design and development of poly-L/D-lactide copolymer and barium titanate nanoparticle 3D composite scaffolds using breath figure method for tissue engineering applications

H. Kemppi, M.A. Finnilä, G.S. Lorite, M. Nelo, J. Juuti, M. Kokki, H. Kokki, Juha Räsänen, A. Mobasheri, S. Saarakkala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

In tissue engineering, the scaffold topography influences the adhesion, proliferation, and function of cells. Specifically, the interconnected porosity is crucial for cell migration and nutrient delivery in 3D scaffolds. The objective of this study was to develop a 3D porous composite scaffold for musculoskeletal tissue engineering applications by incorporating barium titanate nanoparticles (BTNPs) into a poly-L/D-lactide copolymer (PLDLA) scaffold using the breath figure method. The porous scaffold fabrication utilised 96/04 PLDLA, dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), and different types of BTNPs, including uncoated BTNPs, Al2O3-coated BTNPs, and SiO2-coated BTNPs. The BTNPs were incorporated into the polymer scaffold, which was subsequently analysed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The biocompatibility of each scaffold was tested using ovine bone marrow stromal stem cells. The cell morphology, viability, and proliferation were evaluated using FE-SEM, LIVE/DEAD staining, and Prestoblue assay. Porous 3D composite scaffolds were successfully produced, and it was observed that the incorporation of uncoated BTNPs increased the average pore size from 1.6 mu m (PLDLA) to 16.2 mu m (PLDLA/BTNP). The increased pore size in the PLDLA/BTNP scaffolds provided a suitable porosity for the cells to migrate inside the scaffold, while in the pure PLDLA scaffolds with their much smaller pore size, cells elongated on the surface. To conclude, the breath figure method was successfully used to develop a PLDLA/BTNP scaffold. The use of uncoated BTNPs resulted in a composite scaffold with an optimal pore size while maintaining the honeycomb-like structure. The composite scaffolds were biocompatible and yielded promising structures for future tissue engineering applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111530
JournalColloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces
Volume199
Number of pages8
ISSN0927-7765
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • 3111 Biomedicine
  • 3D composite scaffold
  • Poly-L
  • D-lactide copolymer
  • Barium titanate nanoparticle
  • Breath figure method
  • Tissue engineering
  • MESENCHYMAL STEM-CELLS
  • POLY(LACTIC ACID)
  • FILMS
  • DIFFERENTIATION
  • BIOMATERIALS
  • TOPOGRAPHY

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