Development of eco-efficiency in metal production in Finland

Jukka Olavi Hoffren, Eeva-Lotta Apajalahti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


In this article we reconsider if Eco-Efficiency (EE) is a suitable
practical tool of Industrial Ecology (IE) to measure the progress towards
Sustainable Development (SD) and the aims of IE. EE combines sparing use
of natural resources with economic efficiency, the aim being reduced use of
natural resources. Many scientific, government and international organisations
consider EE an essential answer to the global development challenges.
We analysed the trends of the Finnish metals industry and some of the
largest companies. Empirical results showed that the EE of the metals industry
sector improved by Factor 1.42–1.77 from 2000 to 2006, which is not enough
as regards the long-term Factor 4 and 10 targets. The best companies have
EE improvements in line with the Factor targets and thus there seems to be
a potential in the Finnish metals industry to comply with the Factor targets,
if required.
Original languageEnglish
JournalProgress in Industrial Ecology
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)153-167
Publication statusPublished - 2009
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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