Dietary change, obesity, and metabolic markers in pregnancy: studies in women at risk for gestational diabetes mellitus

Anita Valkama

Research output: ThesisDoctoral ThesisCollection of Articles


Background The syndrome of Acute Heart Failure (AHF) is a very common cause for hospitalization, and carries a poor prognosis both in hospital and after discharge. The syndrome is caused by a various disease of the cardiovascular system and the heart. Congestion due to elevated cardiac filling pressures is the key physiological feature in AHF. There is to date very little evidence-based therapy existing for AHF and hospitalizations are lengthy and expensive. The aim of this thesis is to investigate a cardiothoracic rapid ultrasound protocol (CaTUS) in allowing an individual approach to be taken considering diagnosis, treatment monitoring and treatment guidance in AHF. Methods We enrolled 4 partly overlapping populations for this thesis. In our first study, we enrolled a total of 100 dyspneic ED patients in whom we tested CaTUS for diagnosing AHF, with the protocol done immediately upon arrival in the ED. Except for diagnosing AHF, CaTUS was also tested for diagnosing other conditions causing dyspnea in this study. In our second study on early monitoring of AHF, we enrolled 60 hospitalized AHF patients who had CaTUS done 3 times during the first 24 hours, thereafter 24 hours later and finally once more prior to discharge. In our third study evaluating the prognostic impact of CaTUS among other congestion parameters, we enrolled a sample of 100 hospitalized AHF patients, to whom CaTUS was done at baseline, at 24 and 48 hours and finally at the day of discharge. In our fourth study, we enrolled a small 20-patient AHF population, who had their treatment guided by the CaTUS protocol. The treatment results in this population were compared with treatment results in the previously enrolled 100-patient population enrolled before, who had received conventional in-hospital treatment for AHF. Results The CaTUS protocol performed very well for diagnosing AHF, as well as for differential diagnostics in dyspneic patients. Sensitivity was 100 % and specificity 95.8 % for diagnosing AHF as compared to a golden standard consisting of a brain natriuretic peptide-value of > 400 ng/l or > 100 ng/l in combination on chest x-ray as evaluated by an independent radiologist on the radiology ward . During early treatment, CaTUS was able to identify early treatment responders and disgtinguish them from non-responders, which seemed to be relevant since early responders often expressed a favorable treatment response throughout hospitalization and a significantly better post-discharge prognosis. For determining post-discharge prognosis, inferior vena cava index at discharge seemed to be the most relevant congestion parameter, indicating whether an AHF patient is sufficiently decongested. Finally, CaTUS-guided decongestive therapy seemed safe, was associated with greater decongestion by all parameters, and seems to have been associated with fewer re-hospitalizations due to AHF. Conclusion CaTUS seems useful for diagnosing, monitoring and guiding decongestive therapy in AHF.
Original languageEnglish
  • Eriksson, Johan, Supervisor
  • Lindström, Jaana, Supervisor, External person
  • Koivusalo, Saila B., Supervisor
Place of PublicationHelsinki
Print ISBNs978-951-51-4775-2
Electronic ISBNs978-951-51-4776-9
Publication statusPublished - 2019
MoE publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)

Fields of Science

  • Diabetes, Gestational
  • +diet therapy
  • +prevention & control
  • Obesity
  • Vitamin D
  • +blood
  • +metabolism
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Glucose
  • Food
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Diet
  • Risk
  • Pregnant Women
  • Particle Size
  • Insulin
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Body Mass Index
  • Lipoproteins, VLDL
  • Lipoproteins, HDL
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Pregnancy Complications
  • 3123 Gynaecology and paediatrics
  • 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine

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