Dinoflagellate cyst production over an annual cycle in seasonally ice-covered Hudson Bay

Maija Pauliina Heikkilä, Vera Pospelova, Alexandre Forest, Gary Stern, Louis Fortier, Robie W. Macdonald

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

We present continuous bi-weekly to bi-monthly dinoflagellate cyst, tintinnid loricae and tintinnid cyst fluxes at two mooring sites in Hudson Bay (subarctic Canada) from October 2005 to September 2006. The total dinoflagellate cyst fluxes at the site on the western side of the bay ranged from 4600 to 53,600 cysts m(-2) day(-1) (average 20,000 cysts m(-2) day(-1)), while on average three times higher fluxes (average 62,300 cysts m(-2) day(-1)) were recorded at the site on the eastern side of the bay with a range from 2700 to 394,800 cysts m(-2) day(-1). These values are equivalent to the average fluxes calculated from the top 1-cm sediment layer of 210Pb-dated box cores at corresponding locations, and hence lend support to the use of sediment dinoflagellate cysts in palaeoceanography. Tintinnid fluxes ranged from 1200 to 80,000 specimens m(-2) day(-1) (average 32,100 tintinnids m(-2) day(-1)) in the west, and 1600 to 1,240,800 specimens m(-2) day(-1) (average 106,800 tintinnids m(-2) day(-1)) in the east, with the highest Salpingella sp. fluxes recorded during the sea-ice cover season.

The dinoflagellate cyst species diversity recorded in the traps was similar at the two environmentally differing locations, with cold-water (e.g., Echinidinium karaense, Islandinium minutum, Islandinium? cezare, Polykrikos sp. var. arctica, Spiniferites elongates), cosmopolitan (e.g., Operculodinium centrocarpum, Spiniferites ramosus, Brigantedinium) and typical warmer-water (e.g., Echinidinium aculeatum, Islanidium brevispinosum) species present. Furthermore, the species-specific timing of cyst production behaved similarly relative to the seasonal sea-ice cycle at both locations. Cyst species proportions and species-specific flux quantities, however, differed between the two sites and corresponded to the quantities and species assemblages recorded in the surface sediment, with the exception of cysts of Polarella glacialis and cf. Biecheleria sp. that seem not to preserve well in sediment but were abundant in both traps. Otherwise, cyst assemblage at the western trap site was dominated by O. centrocarpum and S. elongates while at the eastern site very high quantities of cysts of Pentapharsodinium dalei were recorded. Our data do not lend support to the hypothesis that trophic status solely determines whether cyst production takes place under-ice or in the open water, since cysts of light-dependent (phototrophic) and light-independent (heterotrophic) dinoflagellates are recorded during both conditions. Most importantly, negligible under-ice cyst production is recorded during the deep arctic winter. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
JournalMarine Micropaleontology
Volume125
Pages (from-to)1-24
Number of pages24
ISSN0377-8398
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • 1171 Geosciences
  • Dinoflagellate cyst
  • Sea-ice
  • Hudson Bay
  • Arctic
  • Sediment trap
  • Phytoplankton dynamics
  • Tintinnid loricae
  • Ciliate
  • SEA-SURFACE CONDITIONS
  • RECENT MARINE-SEDIMENTS
  • SANTA-BARBARA BASIN
  • FRESH-WATER
  • PALYNOLOGICAL EVIDENCE
  • POLARELLA-GLACIALIS
  • LIFE-CYCLE
  • MIXOTROPHIC DINOFLAGELLATE
  • HYDROGRAPHIC CONDITIONS
  • OCEANOGRAPHIC CHANGES

Cite this

Heikkilä, Maija Pauliina ; Pospelova, Vera ; Forest, Alexandre ; Stern, Gary ; Fortier, Louis ; Macdonald, Robie W. / Dinoflagellate cyst production over an annual cycle in seasonally ice-covered Hudson Bay. In: Marine Micropaleontology. 2016 ; Vol. 125. pp. 1-24.
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abstract = "We present continuous bi-weekly to bi-monthly dinoflagellate cyst, tintinnid loricae and tintinnid cyst fluxes at two mooring sites in Hudson Bay (subarctic Canada) from October 2005 to September 2006. The total dinoflagellate cyst fluxes at the site on the western side of the bay ranged from 4600 to 53,600 cysts m(-2) day(-1) (average 20,000 cysts m(-2) day(-1)), while on average three times higher fluxes (average 62,300 cysts m(-2) day(-1)) were recorded at the site on the eastern side of the bay with a range from 2700 to 394,800 cysts m(-2) day(-1). These values are equivalent to the average fluxes calculated from the top 1-cm sediment layer of 210Pb-dated box cores at corresponding locations, and hence lend support to the use of sediment dinoflagellate cysts in palaeoceanography. Tintinnid fluxes ranged from 1200 to 80,000 specimens m(-2) day(-1) (average 32,100 tintinnids m(-2) day(-1)) in the west, and 1600 to 1,240,800 specimens m(-2) day(-1) (average 106,800 tintinnids m(-2) day(-1)) in the east, with the highest Salpingella sp. fluxes recorded during the sea-ice cover season.The dinoflagellate cyst species diversity recorded in the traps was similar at the two environmentally differing locations, with cold-water (e.g., Echinidinium karaense, Islandinium minutum, Islandinium? cezare, Polykrikos sp. var. arctica, Spiniferites elongates), cosmopolitan (e.g., Operculodinium centrocarpum, Spiniferites ramosus, Brigantedinium) and typical warmer-water (e.g., Echinidinium aculeatum, Islanidium brevispinosum) species present. Furthermore, the species-specific timing of cyst production behaved similarly relative to the seasonal sea-ice cycle at both locations. Cyst species proportions and species-specific flux quantities, however, differed between the two sites and corresponded to the quantities and species assemblages recorded in the surface sediment, with the exception of cysts of Polarella glacialis and cf. Biecheleria sp. that seem not to preserve well in sediment but were abundant in both traps. Otherwise, cyst assemblage at the western trap site was dominated by O. centrocarpum and S. elongates while at the eastern site very high quantities of cysts of Pentapharsodinium dalei were recorded. Our data do not lend support to the hypothesis that trophic status solely determines whether cyst production takes place under-ice or in the open water, since cysts of light-dependent (phototrophic) and light-independent (heterotrophic) dinoflagellates are recorded during both conditions. Most importantly, negligible under-ice cyst production is recorded during the deep arctic winter. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.",
keywords = "1171 Geosciences, Dinoflagellate cyst , Sea-ice , Hudson Bay , Arctic , Sediment trap , Phytoplankton dynamics , Tintinnid loricae , Ciliate , SEA-SURFACE CONDITIONS , RECENT MARINE-SEDIMENTS , SANTA-BARBARA BASIN , FRESH-WATER , PALYNOLOGICAL EVIDENCE , POLARELLA-GLACIALIS , LIFE-CYCLE , MIXOTROPHIC DINOFLAGELLATE , HYDROGRAPHIC CONDITIONS , OCEANOGRAPHIC CHANGES",
author = "Heikkil{\"a}, {Maija Pauliina} and Vera Pospelova and Alexandre Forest and Gary Stern and Louis Fortier and Macdonald, {Robie W.}",
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Dinoflagellate cyst production over an annual cycle in seasonally ice-covered Hudson Bay. / Heikkilä, Maija Pauliina; Pospelova, Vera; Forest, Alexandre; Stern, Gary; Fortier, Louis; Macdonald, Robie W.

In: Marine Micropaleontology, Vol. 125, 05.2016, p. 1-24.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dinoflagellate cyst production over an annual cycle in seasonally ice-covered Hudson Bay

AU - Heikkilä, Maija Pauliina

AU - Pospelova, Vera

AU - Forest, Alexandre

AU - Stern, Gary

AU - Fortier, Louis

AU - Macdonald, Robie W.

PY - 2016/5

Y1 - 2016/5

N2 - We present continuous bi-weekly to bi-monthly dinoflagellate cyst, tintinnid loricae and tintinnid cyst fluxes at two mooring sites in Hudson Bay (subarctic Canada) from October 2005 to September 2006. The total dinoflagellate cyst fluxes at the site on the western side of the bay ranged from 4600 to 53,600 cysts m(-2) day(-1) (average 20,000 cysts m(-2) day(-1)), while on average three times higher fluxes (average 62,300 cysts m(-2) day(-1)) were recorded at the site on the eastern side of the bay with a range from 2700 to 394,800 cysts m(-2) day(-1). These values are equivalent to the average fluxes calculated from the top 1-cm sediment layer of 210Pb-dated box cores at corresponding locations, and hence lend support to the use of sediment dinoflagellate cysts in palaeoceanography. Tintinnid fluxes ranged from 1200 to 80,000 specimens m(-2) day(-1) (average 32,100 tintinnids m(-2) day(-1)) in the west, and 1600 to 1,240,800 specimens m(-2) day(-1) (average 106,800 tintinnids m(-2) day(-1)) in the east, with the highest Salpingella sp. fluxes recorded during the sea-ice cover season.The dinoflagellate cyst species diversity recorded in the traps was similar at the two environmentally differing locations, with cold-water (e.g., Echinidinium karaense, Islandinium minutum, Islandinium? cezare, Polykrikos sp. var. arctica, Spiniferites elongates), cosmopolitan (e.g., Operculodinium centrocarpum, Spiniferites ramosus, Brigantedinium) and typical warmer-water (e.g., Echinidinium aculeatum, Islanidium brevispinosum) species present. Furthermore, the species-specific timing of cyst production behaved similarly relative to the seasonal sea-ice cycle at both locations. Cyst species proportions and species-specific flux quantities, however, differed between the two sites and corresponded to the quantities and species assemblages recorded in the surface sediment, with the exception of cysts of Polarella glacialis and cf. Biecheleria sp. that seem not to preserve well in sediment but were abundant in both traps. Otherwise, cyst assemblage at the western trap site was dominated by O. centrocarpum and S. elongates while at the eastern site very high quantities of cysts of Pentapharsodinium dalei were recorded. Our data do not lend support to the hypothesis that trophic status solely determines whether cyst production takes place under-ice or in the open water, since cysts of light-dependent (phototrophic) and light-independent (heterotrophic) dinoflagellates are recorded during both conditions. Most importantly, negligible under-ice cyst production is recorded during the deep arctic winter. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

AB - We present continuous bi-weekly to bi-monthly dinoflagellate cyst, tintinnid loricae and tintinnid cyst fluxes at two mooring sites in Hudson Bay (subarctic Canada) from October 2005 to September 2006. The total dinoflagellate cyst fluxes at the site on the western side of the bay ranged from 4600 to 53,600 cysts m(-2) day(-1) (average 20,000 cysts m(-2) day(-1)), while on average three times higher fluxes (average 62,300 cysts m(-2) day(-1)) were recorded at the site on the eastern side of the bay with a range from 2700 to 394,800 cysts m(-2) day(-1). These values are equivalent to the average fluxes calculated from the top 1-cm sediment layer of 210Pb-dated box cores at corresponding locations, and hence lend support to the use of sediment dinoflagellate cysts in palaeoceanography. Tintinnid fluxes ranged from 1200 to 80,000 specimens m(-2) day(-1) (average 32,100 tintinnids m(-2) day(-1)) in the west, and 1600 to 1,240,800 specimens m(-2) day(-1) (average 106,800 tintinnids m(-2) day(-1)) in the east, with the highest Salpingella sp. fluxes recorded during the sea-ice cover season.The dinoflagellate cyst species diversity recorded in the traps was similar at the two environmentally differing locations, with cold-water (e.g., Echinidinium karaense, Islandinium minutum, Islandinium? cezare, Polykrikos sp. var. arctica, Spiniferites elongates), cosmopolitan (e.g., Operculodinium centrocarpum, Spiniferites ramosus, Brigantedinium) and typical warmer-water (e.g., Echinidinium aculeatum, Islanidium brevispinosum) species present. Furthermore, the species-specific timing of cyst production behaved similarly relative to the seasonal sea-ice cycle at both locations. Cyst species proportions and species-specific flux quantities, however, differed between the two sites and corresponded to the quantities and species assemblages recorded in the surface sediment, with the exception of cysts of Polarella glacialis and cf. Biecheleria sp. that seem not to preserve well in sediment but were abundant in both traps. Otherwise, cyst assemblage at the western trap site was dominated by O. centrocarpum and S. elongates while at the eastern site very high quantities of cysts of Pentapharsodinium dalei were recorded. Our data do not lend support to the hypothesis that trophic status solely determines whether cyst production takes place under-ice or in the open water, since cysts of light-dependent (phototrophic) and light-independent (heterotrophic) dinoflagellates are recorded during both conditions. Most importantly, negligible under-ice cyst production is recorded during the deep arctic winter. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KW - 1171 Geosciences

KW - Dinoflagellate cyst

KW - Sea-ice

KW - Hudson Bay

KW - Arctic

KW - Sediment trap

KW - Phytoplankton dynamics

KW - Tintinnid loricae

KW - Ciliate

KW - SEA-SURFACE CONDITIONS

KW - RECENT MARINE-SEDIMENTS

KW - SANTA-BARBARA BASIN

KW - FRESH-WATER

KW - PALYNOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

KW - POLARELLA-GLACIALIS

KW - LIFE-CYCLE

KW - MIXOTROPHIC DINOFLAGELLATE

KW - HYDROGRAPHIC CONDITIONS

KW - OCEANOGRAPHIC CHANGES

U2 - 10.1016/j.marmicro.2016.02.005

DO - 10.1016/j.marmicro.2016.02.005

M3 - Article

VL - 125

SP - 1

EP - 24

JO - Marine Micropaleontology

JF - Marine Micropaleontology

SN - 0377-8398

ER -