«Х есть Х» значит «Х это Х»? Ищем ответ в синхронии и диахронии

Translated title of the contribution: Does “X est’ X” mean “X eto X”? Looking for an answer in synchrony and diachrony

Mikhail Kopotev, Elena Vilinbakhova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


The paper deals with the Russian tautologies X est’ X ‘Х is X’ and X eto X ‘Х this is X’. We elaborate
on the diachronic and synchronic analyses of the two constructions based on the data from the Russian Na-
tional Corpus. The paper discusses a) milestones in the development of these two tautologies in Russian
(taking into account the pattern X sut’ X ‘Х are X’ that has completely disappeared from the language);
b) frequency of different syntactic phrases used as the repeated element X (based on the Russian National
Corpus data); c) syntactic constraints on phrases in both constructions; d) semantic and pragmatic features
of the two types of constructions. We argue that X est’ X most often appeals to different components of X’s
meaning (e. g. its connotations), while X eto X expresses the subject’s identity to itself, being a tautology
in the Wittgensteinian sense.
Original languageRussian
JournalVoprosy âzykoznaniâ
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)110-124
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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