Drivers of apoplastic freezing in gymnosperm and angiosperm branches

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

It is not well understood what determines the degree of supercooling of apoplastic sap in trees, although it determines the number and duration of annual freeze–thaw cycles in a given environment. We studied the linkage between apoplastic ice nucleation temperature, tree water status, and conduit size. We used branches of 10 gymnosperms and 16 angiosperms collected from an arboretum in Helsinki (Finland) in winter and spring. Branches with lower relative water content froze at lower temperatures, and branch water content was lower in winter than in spring. A bench drying experiment with Picea abies confirmed that decreasing branch water potential decreases apoplastic ice nucleation temperature. The studied angiosperms froze on average 2.0 and 1.8°C closer to zero Celsius than the studied gymnosperms during winter and spring, respectively. This was caused by higher relative water content in angiosperms; when branches were saturated with water, apoplastic ice nucleation temperature of gymnosperms increased to slightly higher temperature than that of angiosperms. Apoplastic ice nucleation temperature in sampled branches was positively correlated with xylem conduit diameter as shown before, but saturating the branches removed the correlation. Decrease in ice nucleation temperature decreased the duration of freezing, which could have an effect on winter embolism formation via the time available for gas escape during ice propagation. The apoplastic ice nucleation temperature varied not only between branches but also within a branch between consecutive freeze–thaw cycles demonstrating the stochastic nature of ice nucleation.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEcology and Evolution
Volume8
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)333–343
Number of pages11
ISSN2045-7758
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • 114 Physical sciences
  • 4112 Forestry
  • freeze-thaw cycle
  • freezing stress
  • ice nucleation
  • ice propagation
  • water content
  • winter embolism
  • winter tolerance
  • HOMOGENEOUS ICE NUCLEATION
  • HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY
  • INDUCED EMBOLISM
  • WATER RELATIONS
  • NORWAY SPRUCE
  • XYLEM DYSFUNCTION
  • ALPINE TIMBERLINE
  • FROST-RESISTANCE
  • CONIFEROUS TREES
  • DECIDUOUS TREES

Cite this

@article{a8e76c00bd204008a69dc327ce269ee9,
title = "Drivers of apoplastic freezing in gymnosperm and angiosperm branches",
abstract = "It is not well understood what determines the degree of supercooling of apoplastic sap in trees, although it determines the number and duration of annual freeze–thaw cycles in a given environment. We studied the linkage between apoplastic ice nucleation temperature, tree water status, and conduit size. We used branches of 10 gymnosperms and 16 angiosperms collected from an arboretum in Helsinki (Finland) in winter and spring. Branches with lower relative water content froze at lower temperatures, and branch water content was lower in winter than in spring. A bench drying experiment with Picea abies confirmed that decreasing branch water potential decreases apoplastic ice nucleation temperature. The studied angiosperms froze on average 2.0 and 1.8°C closer to zero Celsius than the studied gymnosperms during winter and spring, respectively. This was caused by higher relative water content in angiosperms; when branches were saturated with water, apoplastic ice nucleation temperature of gymnosperms increased to slightly higher temperature than that of angiosperms. Apoplastic ice nucleation temperature in sampled branches was positively correlated with xylem conduit diameter as shown before, but saturating the branches removed the correlation. Decrease in ice nucleation temperature decreased the duration of freezing, which could have an effect on winter embolism formation via the time available for gas escape during ice propagation. The apoplastic ice nucleation temperature varied not only between branches but also within a branch between consecutive freeze–thaw cycles demonstrating the stochastic nature of ice nucleation.",
keywords = "114 Physical sciences, 4112 Forestry, freeze-thaw cycle, freezing stress, ice nucleation, ice propagation, water content, winter embolism, winter tolerance, HOMOGENEOUS ICE NUCLEATION, HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY, INDUCED EMBOLISM, WATER RELATIONS, NORWAY SPRUCE, XYLEM DYSFUNCTION, ALPINE TIMBERLINE, FROST-RESISTANCE, CONIFEROUS TREES, DECIDUOUS TREES",
author = "Lintunen, {Anna Matilda} and Stefan Mayr and Salmon, {Yann Louis Baptiste} and Herv{\'e} Cochard and H{\"o}ltt{\"a}, {Teemu Samuli}",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1002/ece3.3665",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
pages = "333–343",
journal = "Ecology and Evolution",
issn = "2045-7758",
publisher = "Wiley",
number = "1",

}

Drivers of apoplastic freezing in gymnosperm and angiosperm branches. / Lintunen, Anna Matilda; Mayr, Stefan; Salmon, Yann Louis Baptiste; Cochard, Hervé; Hölttä, Teemu Samuli.

In: Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 8, No. 1, 01.2018, p. 333–343 .

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Drivers of apoplastic freezing in gymnosperm and angiosperm branches

AU - Lintunen, Anna Matilda

AU - Mayr, Stefan

AU - Salmon, Yann Louis Baptiste

AU - Cochard, Hervé

AU - Hölttä, Teemu Samuli

PY - 2018/1

Y1 - 2018/1

N2 - It is not well understood what determines the degree of supercooling of apoplastic sap in trees, although it determines the number and duration of annual freeze–thaw cycles in a given environment. We studied the linkage between apoplastic ice nucleation temperature, tree water status, and conduit size. We used branches of 10 gymnosperms and 16 angiosperms collected from an arboretum in Helsinki (Finland) in winter and spring. Branches with lower relative water content froze at lower temperatures, and branch water content was lower in winter than in spring. A bench drying experiment with Picea abies confirmed that decreasing branch water potential decreases apoplastic ice nucleation temperature. The studied angiosperms froze on average 2.0 and 1.8°C closer to zero Celsius than the studied gymnosperms during winter and spring, respectively. This was caused by higher relative water content in angiosperms; when branches were saturated with water, apoplastic ice nucleation temperature of gymnosperms increased to slightly higher temperature than that of angiosperms. Apoplastic ice nucleation temperature in sampled branches was positively correlated with xylem conduit diameter as shown before, but saturating the branches removed the correlation. Decrease in ice nucleation temperature decreased the duration of freezing, which could have an effect on winter embolism formation via the time available for gas escape during ice propagation. The apoplastic ice nucleation temperature varied not only between branches but also within a branch between consecutive freeze–thaw cycles demonstrating the stochastic nature of ice nucleation.

AB - It is not well understood what determines the degree of supercooling of apoplastic sap in trees, although it determines the number and duration of annual freeze–thaw cycles in a given environment. We studied the linkage between apoplastic ice nucleation temperature, tree water status, and conduit size. We used branches of 10 gymnosperms and 16 angiosperms collected from an arboretum in Helsinki (Finland) in winter and spring. Branches with lower relative water content froze at lower temperatures, and branch water content was lower in winter than in spring. A bench drying experiment with Picea abies confirmed that decreasing branch water potential decreases apoplastic ice nucleation temperature. The studied angiosperms froze on average 2.0 and 1.8°C closer to zero Celsius than the studied gymnosperms during winter and spring, respectively. This was caused by higher relative water content in angiosperms; when branches were saturated with water, apoplastic ice nucleation temperature of gymnosperms increased to slightly higher temperature than that of angiosperms. Apoplastic ice nucleation temperature in sampled branches was positively correlated with xylem conduit diameter as shown before, but saturating the branches removed the correlation. Decrease in ice nucleation temperature decreased the duration of freezing, which could have an effect on winter embolism formation via the time available for gas escape during ice propagation. The apoplastic ice nucleation temperature varied not only between branches but also within a branch between consecutive freeze–thaw cycles demonstrating the stochastic nature of ice nucleation.

KW - 114 Physical sciences

KW - 4112 Forestry

KW - freeze-thaw cycle

KW - freezing stress

KW - ice nucleation

KW - ice propagation

KW - water content

KW - winter embolism

KW - winter tolerance

KW - HOMOGENEOUS ICE NUCLEATION

KW - HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY

KW - INDUCED EMBOLISM

KW - WATER RELATIONS

KW - NORWAY SPRUCE

KW - XYLEM DYSFUNCTION

KW - ALPINE TIMBERLINE

KW - FROST-RESISTANCE

KW - CONIFEROUS TREES

KW - DECIDUOUS TREES

U2 - 10.1002/ece3.3665

DO - 10.1002/ece3.3665

M3 - Article

VL - 8

SP - 333

EP - 343

JO - Ecology and Evolution

JF - Ecology and Evolution

SN - 2045-7758

IS - 1

ER -