Enchondroma Detection from Hand Radiographs with an Interactive Deep Learning Segmentation Tool—A Feasibility Study

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Enchondromas are common benign bone tumors, usually presenting in the hand. They can cause symptoms such as swelling and pain but often go un-noticed. If the tumor expands, it can diminish the bone cortices and predispose the bone to fracture. Diagnosis is based on clinical investigation and radiographic imaging. Despite their typical appearance on radiographs, they can primarily be misdiagnosed or go totally unrecognized in the acute trauma setting. Earlier applications of deep learning models to image classification and pattern recognition suggest that this technique may also be utilized in detecting enchondroma in hand radiographs. We trained a deep learning model with 414 enchondroma radiographs to detect enchondroma from hand radiographs. A separate test set of 131 radiographs (47% with an enchondroma) was used to assess the performance of the trained deep learning model. Enchondroma annotation by three clinical experts served as our ground truth in assessing the deep learning model’s performance. Our deep learning model detected 56 enchondromas from the 62 enchondroma radiographs. The area under receiver operator curve was 0.95. The F1 score for area statistical overlapping was 69.5%. Our deep learning model may be a useful tool for radiograph screening and raising suspicion of enchondroma.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7129
JournalJournal of clinical medicine
Issue number22
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.

Fields of Science

  • benign tumor
  • deep learning
  • enchondroma
  • hand radiograph
  • machine learning
  • radiograph
  • segmentation
  • 3126 Surgery, anesthesiology, intensive care, radiology

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