Event reconstruction through Bayesian chronology

Massive mid-Holocene lake-burst triggered large-scale ecological and cultural change

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Precise timing of natural and cultural events provides a foundation for understanding how past natural phenomena have driven changes in population
and culture. In this study, we used high-resolution Bayesian chronology to describe an event sequence of a massive and abrupt water level decline of
a large lake and the contemporaneous cultural changes that occurred in eastern Fennoscandia during the mid-Holocene. The study provides the first
transdisciplinary analysis of the causes and effects of the events by using a combination of archaeological, geological and ecological data. Nearly 6000 years
ago, ancient Lake Saimaa, estimated to cover nearly 9000 km2at the time, was abruptly discharged through a new outlet. The event created thousands of
square kilometres of new residual wetlands. The archaeological record shows a profound cultural replacement and a subsequent sharp human population
maximum in the area during the decades after the decline in water level. During the population maximum, the proportion of Alces alces (moose) in the
diet rapidly increased and became prominent as a dietary resource. The eventual population decline in the area coincided with ecological development
towards old boreal conifer forests, along with the colonization of a new species of tree Picea abies (Norway spruce). The new ecosystem was less suitable
for moose to forage in, and this attenuated the dietary role of moose and thus contributed towards the eventual population and cultural decline. The
methodological approach described in this paper allowed the reconstruction of past natural and cultural events and demonstrated how they can be
causally intertwined.
Original languageEnglish
JournalHolocene
Volume24
Issue number11
Pages (from-to)1419–1427
Number of pages9
ISSN0959-6836
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • 615 History and Archaeology

Cite this

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title = "Event reconstruction through Bayesian chronology: Massive mid-Holocene lake-burst triggered large-scale ecological and cultural change",
abstract = "Precise timing of natural and cultural events provides a foundation for understanding how past natural phenomena have driven changes in population and culture. In this study, we used high-resolution Bayesian chronology to describe an event sequence of a massive and abrupt water level decline of a large lake and the contemporaneous cultural changes that occurred in eastern Fennoscandia during the mid-Holocene. The study provides the first transdisciplinary analysis of the causes and effects of the events by using a combination of archaeological, geological and ecological data. Nearly 6000 years ago, ancient Lake Saimaa, estimated to cover nearly 9000 km2at the time, was abruptly discharged through a new outlet. The event created thousands of square kilometres of new residual wetlands. The archaeological record shows a profound cultural replacement and a subsequent sharp human population maximum in the area during the decades after the decline in water level. During the population maximum, the proportion of Alces alces (moose) in the diet rapidly increased and became prominent as a dietary resource. The eventual population decline in the area coincided with ecological development towards old boreal conifer forests, along with the colonization of a new species of tree Picea abies (Norway spruce). The new ecosystem was less suitable for moose to forage in, and this attenuated the dietary role of moose and thus contributed towards the eventual population and cultural decline. The methodological approach described in this paper allowed the reconstruction of past natural and cultural events and demonstrated how they can be causally intertwined.",
keywords = "615 History and Archaeology",
author = "Markku Oinonen and Pesonen, {Petro Anssi Pellervo} and Alenius, {Teija Helena} and Volker Heyd and Elisabeth Holmqvist-Saukkonen and Kivim{\"a}ki, {Sanna-Maria (Sanna)} and Tuire Nygr{\'e}n and Tarja Sundell and P{\"a}ivi Onkamo",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1177/0959683614544049",
language = "English",
volume = "24",
pages = "1419–1427",
journal = "Holocene",
issn = "0959-6836",
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T2 - Massive mid-Holocene lake-burst triggered large-scale ecological and cultural change

AU - Oinonen, Markku

AU - Pesonen, Petro Anssi Pellervo

AU - Alenius, Teija Helena

AU - Heyd, Volker

AU - Holmqvist-Saukkonen, Elisabeth

AU - Kivimäki, Sanna-Maria (Sanna)

AU - Nygrén, Tuire

AU - Sundell, Tarja

AU - Onkamo, Päivi

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Precise timing of natural and cultural events provides a foundation for understanding how past natural phenomena have driven changes in population and culture. In this study, we used high-resolution Bayesian chronology to describe an event sequence of a massive and abrupt water level decline of a large lake and the contemporaneous cultural changes that occurred in eastern Fennoscandia during the mid-Holocene. The study provides the first transdisciplinary analysis of the causes and effects of the events by using a combination of archaeological, geological and ecological data. Nearly 6000 years ago, ancient Lake Saimaa, estimated to cover nearly 9000 km2at the time, was abruptly discharged through a new outlet. The event created thousands of square kilometres of new residual wetlands. The archaeological record shows a profound cultural replacement and a subsequent sharp human population maximum in the area during the decades after the decline in water level. During the population maximum, the proportion of Alces alces (moose) in the diet rapidly increased and became prominent as a dietary resource. The eventual population decline in the area coincided with ecological development towards old boreal conifer forests, along with the colonization of a new species of tree Picea abies (Norway spruce). The new ecosystem was less suitable for moose to forage in, and this attenuated the dietary role of moose and thus contributed towards the eventual population and cultural decline. The methodological approach described in this paper allowed the reconstruction of past natural and cultural events and demonstrated how they can be causally intertwined.

AB - Precise timing of natural and cultural events provides a foundation for understanding how past natural phenomena have driven changes in population and culture. In this study, we used high-resolution Bayesian chronology to describe an event sequence of a massive and abrupt water level decline of a large lake and the contemporaneous cultural changes that occurred in eastern Fennoscandia during the mid-Holocene. The study provides the first transdisciplinary analysis of the causes and effects of the events by using a combination of archaeological, geological and ecological data. Nearly 6000 years ago, ancient Lake Saimaa, estimated to cover nearly 9000 km2at the time, was abruptly discharged through a new outlet. The event created thousands of square kilometres of new residual wetlands. The archaeological record shows a profound cultural replacement and a subsequent sharp human population maximum in the area during the decades after the decline in water level. During the population maximum, the proportion of Alces alces (moose) in the diet rapidly increased and became prominent as a dietary resource. The eventual population decline in the area coincided with ecological development towards old boreal conifer forests, along with the colonization of a new species of tree Picea abies (Norway spruce). The new ecosystem was less suitable for moose to forage in, and this attenuated the dietary role of moose and thus contributed towards the eventual population and cultural decline. The methodological approach described in this paper allowed the reconstruction of past natural and cultural events and demonstrated how they can be causally intertwined.

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