Formation of a cultivated Spodosol in East-Central Finland

Markku Yli-Halla, Delbert L Mokma, Lawrence P Wilding, L. Richard Drees

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

The processes involved in Spodosol (Podzol) formation are still being debated. The pedogenic processes in a Spodosol, 10,700 years-old, at Sotkamo that has been cultivated for about 50 years were studied by characterizing the morphology and analyzing the major chemical properties, texture and mineralogy. Before cultivation, organic acids produced by decomposition of organic matter from pine litter in 0 and A horizons had weathered primary minerals in A and E horizons releasing Al and Fe. Percolating waters moved the organo-metallic complexes from A and E horizons to Bhsm and Bs horizons where the complexes coated and bridged sand grains eventually forming cemented ortstein. Because of the high biotite content of the parent material, the index of accumulation of Fe and Al in the Bhsm horizon (Al + 0.5 Fe = 4.1%) was the highest reported in Spodosols of Finland. The data support the theory of downward movement of Al and Fe as organo-metallic complexes with formation of some ferrihydrite but little or no formation of imogolite type materials. Little, if any, podzolization has likely occurred since the initiation of cultivation because, after agricultural liming and consequent increase of pH in the Ap horizon, organic compounds are likely to chelate Ca and Mg rather than Al and Fe.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAgricultural and Food Science
Volume15
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)12-22
Number of pages11
ISSN1459-6067
Publication statusPublished - 2006
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • podzols
  • spodosols
  • soil morphology
  • mineralogy
  • biotite
  • soil classification
  • maaperä
  • maannostuminen
  • hietamaat
  • biotiitti
  • mineraalit
  • Finland

Cite this

Yli-Halla, M., Mokma, D. L., Wilding, L. P., & Drees, L. R. (2006). Formation of a cultivated Spodosol in East-Central Finland. Agricultural and Food Science, 15(1), 12-22.
Yli-Halla, Markku ; Mokma, Delbert L ; Wilding, Lawrence P ; Drees, L. Richard. / Formation of a cultivated Spodosol in East-Central Finland. In: Agricultural and Food Science. 2006 ; Vol. 15, No. 1. pp. 12-22.
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abstract = "The processes involved in Spodosol (Podzol) formation are still being debated. The pedogenic processes in a Spodosol, 10,700 years-old, at Sotkamo that has been cultivated for about 50 years were studied by characterizing the morphology and analyzing the major chemical properties, texture and mineralogy. Before cultivation, organic acids produced by decomposition of organic matter from pine litter in 0 and A horizons had weathered primary minerals in A and E horizons releasing Al and Fe. Percolating waters moved the organo-metallic complexes from A and E horizons to Bhsm and Bs horizons where the complexes coated and bridged sand grains eventually forming cemented ortstein. Because of the high biotite content of the parent material, the index of accumulation of Fe and Al in the Bhsm horizon (Al + 0.5 Fe = 4.1{\%}) was the highest reported in Spodosols of Finland. The data support the theory of downward movement of Al and Fe as organo-metallic complexes with formation of some ferrihydrite but little or no formation of imogolite type materials. Little, if any, podzolization has likely occurred since the initiation of cultivation because, after agricultural liming and consequent increase of pH in the Ap horizon, organic compounds are likely to chelate Ca and Mg rather than Al and Fe.",
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Yli-Halla, M, Mokma, DL, Wilding, LP & Drees, LR 2006, 'Formation of a cultivated Spodosol in East-Central Finland', Agricultural and Food Science, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 12-22.

Formation of a cultivated Spodosol in East-Central Finland. / Yli-Halla, Markku; Mokma, Delbert L; Wilding, Lawrence P; Drees, L. Richard.

In: Agricultural and Food Science, Vol. 15, No. 1, 2006, p. 12-22.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Formation of a cultivated Spodosol in East-Central Finland

AU - Yli-Halla, Markku

AU - Mokma, Delbert L

AU - Wilding, Lawrence P

AU - Drees, L. Richard

PY - 2006

Y1 - 2006

N2 - The processes involved in Spodosol (Podzol) formation are still being debated. The pedogenic processes in a Spodosol, 10,700 years-old, at Sotkamo that has been cultivated for about 50 years were studied by characterizing the morphology and analyzing the major chemical properties, texture and mineralogy. Before cultivation, organic acids produced by decomposition of organic matter from pine litter in 0 and A horizons had weathered primary minerals in A and E horizons releasing Al and Fe. Percolating waters moved the organo-metallic complexes from A and E horizons to Bhsm and Bs horizons where the complexes coated and bridged sand grains eventually forming cemented ortstein. Because of the high biotite content of the parent material, the index of accumulation of Fe and Al in the Bhsm horizon (Al + 0.5 Fe = 4.1%) was the highest reported in Spodosols of Finland. The data support the theory of downward movement of Al and Fe as organo-metallic complexes with formation of some ferrihydrite but little or no formation of imogolite type materials. Little, if any, podzolization has likely occurred since the initiation of cultivation because, after agricultural liming and consequent increase of pH in the Ap horizon, organic compounds are likely to chelate Ca and Mg rather than Al and Fe.

AB - The processes involved in Spodosol (Podzol) formation are still being debated. The pedogenic processes in a Spodosol, 10,700 years-old, at Sotkamo that has been cultivated for about 50 years were studied by characterizing the morphology and analyzing the major chemical properties, texture and mineralogy. Before cultivation, organic acids produced by decomposition of organic matter from pine litter in 0 and A horizons had weathered primary minerals in A and E horizons releasing Al and Fe. Percolating waters moved the organo-metallic complexes from A and E horizons to Bhsm and Bs horizons where the complexes coated and bridged sand grains eventually forming cemented ortstein. Because of the high biotite content of the parent material, the index of accumulation of Fe and Al in the Bhsm horizon (Al + 0.5 Fe = 4.1%) was the highest reported in Spodosols of Finland. The data support the theory of downward movement of Al and Fe as organo-metallic complexes with formation of some ferrihydrite but little or no formation of imogolite type materials. Little, if any, podzolization has likely occurred since the initiation of cultivation because, after agricultural liming and consequent increase of pH in the Ap horizon, organic compounds are likely to chelate Ca and Mg rather than Al and Fe.

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KW - mineralogy

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KW - soil classification

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KW - maannostuminen

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KW - biotiitti

KW - mineraalit

KW - Finland

KW - podzols

KW - spodosols

KW - soil morphology

KW - mineralogy

KW - biotite

KW - soil classification

KW - maaperä

KW - maannostuminen

KW - hietamaat

KW - biotiitti

KW - mineraalit

KW - Finland

KW - podzols

KW - spodosols

KW - soil morphology

KW - mineralogy

KW - biotite

KW - soil classification

KW - maaperä

KW - maannostuminen

KW - hietamaat

KW - biotiitti

KW - mineraalit

KW - Finland

M3 - Article

VL - 15

SP - 12

EP - 22

JO - Agricultural and Food Science

JF - Agricultural and Food Science

SN - 1459-6067

IS - 1

ER -