General Attitudes Towards Robots Scale (GAToRS): A New Instrument for Social Surveys

Mika Koverola, Anton Johannes Olavi Kunnari, Jukka Sundvall, Michael Laakasuo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Psychometric scales are useful tools in understanding people's attitudes towards different aspects of life. As societies develop and new technologies arise, new validated scales are needed. Robots and artificial intelligences of various kinds are about to occupy just about every niche in human society. Several tools to measure fears and anxieties about robots do exist, but there is a definite lack of tools to measure hopes and expectations for these new technologies. Here, we create and validate a novel multi-dimensional scale which measures people's attitudes towards robots, giving equal weight to positive and negative attitudes. Our scale differentiates (a) comfort and enjoyment around robots, (b) unease and anxiety around robots, (c) rational hopes about robots in general (at societal level) and (d) rational worries about robots in general (at societal level). The scale was developed by extracting items from previous scales, crowdsourcing new items, testing through 3 scale iterations by exploratory factor analysis (Ns 135, 801 and 609) and validated in its final form of the scale by confirmatory factor analysis (N: 477). We hope our scale will be a useful instrument for social scientists who wish to study human-technology relations with a validated scale in efficient and generalizable ways.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Social Robotics
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)1559-1581
Number of pages23
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • 515 Psychology
  • General attitudes
  • Robot
  • Robotics
  • Self-reporting measure
  • Multi-dimensional measurement

Cite this