Genetics and genomics of musical abilities

Research output: ThesisDoctoral ThesisCollection of Articles

Abstract

Most people have the capacity for music perception and production, but the degree of music competency varies between individuals. In this thesis, I studied abilities to identify pitch, tone duration and sound patterns with Karma s test for auditory structuring (KMT), and Seashore s tests for time (ST) and pitch (SP). These abilities can be considered as basic components of musicality. Additionally, I studied self-reported musical activities, especially composing and arranging. Musical ability is a diverse phenotype that includes both acquired and innate abilities. Earlier studies have shown that genetic component affects musical traits; here, heritability was estimated as 21-68%. Genetic predisposition of musical abilities was studied in family material (N=915) using linkage and linkage disequilibrium analyses. The best association for musical aptitude (KMT, SP and ST) was obtained at 3q21.3 near GATA2 and the best linkage at 4p14 adjacent to PCDH7. For musically experienced individuals without creative activity in music, linkage was found at 18q21. Interestingly, regions near 4q22.1 and 16p12.3 were linked with multiple musical traits. The genes within the resulting regions showed enrichment of inner ear development, schizophrenia and the long-term depression pathway, which is a molecular pathway important in learning and memory. Using three selection signature methods, FST, haploPS and XP-EHH, over 100 candidate genomic regions were detected to be under positive selection in individuals with high music test scores in the music tests. Enrichment analysis pointed to the development of the inner ear, corresponding to the enrichment results from the musical aptitude linkage analysis, even though there were no common regions between these two studies. The fourth part of this thesis integrates our musical ability gene mapping results with other music-related studies, including also animal model studies. A convergent genomics approach ranked EGR1, cortisol, FOS and FOXP2 as the most prominent molecules that affect musical abilities. The best 40 genes showed enrichment of cognition. Previous studies have shown that musical abilities share a common background with cognitive abilities, such as intelligence, and this study is the first to suggest the associated molecules. In conclusion, with these studies, I suggest many new genes and pathways to be associated with musical traits. The genetic predisposition for music is affected by a large number of genes of which only a few have been identified. Musical abilities were linked to multiple different chromosomes of which the 4q22 region is especially interesting. We made a literary survey combining information of molecules related to musical traits that can be used to evaluate genomics results in the future.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationHelsinki
Publisher
Print ISBNs978-951-51-2463-0
Electronic ISBNs978-951-51-2464-7
Publication statusPublished - 7 Oct 2016
MoE publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)

Fields of Science

  • 1184 Genetics, developmental biology, physiology

Cite this

Oikkonen, J. M. (2016). Genetics and genomics of musical abilities. Helsinki: Helsingin yliopisto.
Oikkonen, Jaana Marjut. / Genetics and genomics of musical abilities. Helsinki : Helsingin yliopisto, 2016. 80 p.
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title = "Genetics and genomics of musical abilities",
abstract = "Most people have the capacity for music perception and production, but the degree of music competency varies between individuals. In this thesis, I studied abilities to identify pitch, tone duration and sound patterns with Karma s test for auditory structuring (KMT), and Seashore s tests for time (ST) and pitch (SP). These abilities can be considered as basic components of musicality. Additionally, I studied self-reported musical activities, especially composing and arranging. Musical ability is a diverse phenotype that includes both acquired and innate abilities. Earlier studies have shown that genetic component affects musical traits; here, heritability was estimated as 21-68{\%}. Genetic predisposition of musical abilities was studied in family material (N=915) using linkage and linkage disequilibrium analyses. The best association for musical aptitude (KMT, SP and ST) was obtained at 3q21.3 near GATA2 and the best linkage at 4p14 adjacent to PCDH7. For musically experienced individuals without creative activity in music, linkage was found at 18q21. Interestingly, regions near 4q22.1 and 16p12.3 were linked with multiple musical traits. The genes within the resulting regions showed enrichment of inner ear development, schizophrenia and the long-term depression pathway, which is a molecular pathway important in learning and memory. Using three selection signature methods, FST, haploPS and XP-EHH, over 100 candidate genomic regions were detected to be under positive selection in individuals with high music test scores in the music tests. Enrichment analysis pointed to the development of the inner ear, corresponding to the enrichment results from the musical aptitude linkage analysis, even though there were no common regions between these two studies. The fourth part of this thesis integrates our musical ability gene mapping results with other music-related studies, including also animal model studies. A convergent genomics approach ranked EGR1, cortisol, FOS and FOXP2 as the most prominent molecules that affect musical abilities. The best 40 genes showed enrichment of cognition. Previous studies have shown that musical abilities share a common background with cognitive abilities, such as intelligence, and this study is the first to suggest the associated molecules. In conclusion, with these studies, I suggest many new genes and pathways to be associated with musical traits. The genetic predisposition for music is affected by a large number of genes of which only a few have been identified. Musical abilities were linked to multiple different chromosomes of which the 4q22 region is especially interesting. We made a literary survey combining information of molecules related to musical traits that can be used to evaluate genomics results in the future.",
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author = "Oikkonen, {Jaana Marjut}",
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Genetics and genomics of musical abilities. / Oikkonen, Jaana Marjut.

Helsinki : Helsingin yliopisto, 2016. 80 p.

Research output: ThesisDoctoral ThesisCollection of Articles

TY - THES

T1 - Genetics and genomics of musical abilities

AU - Oikkonen, Jaana Marjut

PY - 2016/10/7

Y1 - 2016/10/7

N2 - Most people have the capacity for music perception and production, but the degree of music competency varies between individuals. In this thesis, I studied abilities to identify pitch, tone duration and sound patterns with Karma s test for auditory structuring (KMT), and Seashore s tests for time (ST) and pitch (SP). These abilities can be considered as basic components of musicality. Additionally, I studied self-reported musical activities, especially composing and arranging. Musical ability is a diverse phenotype that includes both acquired and innate abilities. Earlier studies have shown that genetic component affects musical traits; here, heritability was estimated as 21-68%. Genetic predisposition of musical abilities was studied in family material (N=915) using linkage and linkage disequilibrium analyses. The best association for musical aptitude (KMT, SP and ST) was obtained at 3q21.3 near GATA2 and the best linkage at 4p14 adjacent to PCDH7. For musically experienced individuals without creative activity in music, linkage was found at 18q21. Interestingly, regions near 4q22.1 and 16p12.3 were linked with multiple musical traits. The genes within the resulting regions showed enrichment of inner ear development, schizophrenia and the long-term depression pathway, which is a molecular pathway important in learning and memory. Using three selection signature methods, FST, haploPS and XP-EHH, over 100 candidate genomic regions were detected to be under positive selection in individuals with high music test scores in the music tests. Enrichment analysis pointed to the development of the inner ear, corresponding to the enrichment results from the musical aptitude linkage analysis, even though there were no common regions between these two studies. The fourth part of this thesis integrates our musical ability gene mapping results with other music-related studies, including also animal model studies. A convergent genomics approach ranked EGR1, cortisol, FOS and FOXP2 as the most prominent molecules that affect musical abilities. The best 40 genes showed enrichment of cognition. Previous studies have shown that musical abilities share a common background with cognitive abilities, such as intelligence, and this study is the first to suggest the associated molecules. In conclusion, with these studies, I suggest many new genes and pathways to be associated with musical traits. The genetic predisposition for music is affected by a large number of genes of which only a few have been identified. Musical abilities were linked to multiple different chromosomes of which the 4q22 region is especially interesting. We made a literary survey combining information of molecules related to musical traits that can be used to evaluate genomics results in the future.

AB - Most people have the capacity for music perception and production, but the degree of music competency varies between individuals. In this thesis, I studied abilities to identify pitch, tone duration and sound patterns with Karma s test for auditory structuring (KMT), and Seashore s tests for time (ST) and pitch (SP). These abilities can be considered as basic components of musicality. Additionally, I studied self-reported musical activities, especially composing and arranging. Musical ability is a diverse phenotype that includes both acquired and innate abilities. Earlier studies have shown that genetic component affects musical traits; here, heritability was estimated as 21-68%. Genetic predisposition of musical abilities was studied in family material (N=915) using linkage and linkage disequilibrium analyses. The best association for musical aptitude (KMT, SP and ST) was obtained at 3q21.3 near GATA2 and the best linkage at 4p14 adjacent to PCDH7. For musically experienced individuals without creative activity in music, linkage was found at 18q21. Interestingly, regions near 4q22.1 and 16p12.3 were linked with multiple musical traits. The genes within the resulting regions showed enrichment of inner ear development, schizophrenia and the long-term depression pathway, which is a molecular pathway important in learning and memory. Using three selection signature methods, FST, haploPS and XP-EHH, over 100 candidate genomic regions were detected to be under positive selection in individuals with high music test scores in the music tests. Enrichment analysis pointed to the development of the inner ear, corresponding to the enrichment results from the musical aptitude linkage analysis, even though there were no common regions between these two studies. The fourth part of this thesis integrates our musical ability gene mapping results with other music-related studies, including also animal model studies. A convergent genomics approach ranked EGR1, cortisol, FOS and FOXP2 as the most prominent molecules that affect musical abilities. The best 40 genes showed enrichment of cognition. Previous studies have shown that musical abilities share a common background with cognitive abilities, such as intelligence, and this study is the first to suggest the associated molecules. In conclusion, with these studies, I suggest many new genes and pathways to be associated with musical traits. The genetic predisposition for music is affected by a large number of genes of which only a few have been identified. Musical abilities were linked to multiple different chromosomes of which the 4q22 region is especially interesting. We made a literary survey combining information of molecules related to musical traits that can be used to evaluate genomics results in the future.

KW - 1184 Genetics, developmental biology, physiology

M3 - Doctoral Thesis

SN - 978-951-51-2463-0

PB - Helsingin yliopisto

CY - Helsinki

ER -

Oikkonen JM. Genetics and genomics of musical abilities. Helsinki: Helsingin yliopisto, 2016. 80 p.