How do student teachers reflect on their practice through practicum courses? A case study from Iran

Esmail Azimi, Elina Kuusisto, Kirsi Tirri, Javad Hatami

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


The present study investigates the nature of Iranian student teachers' reflections and their professional development in the context of teacher education practicums. The participants were student teachers (N = 41) enrolled in teacher education colleges at Farhangian University in Tehran, Iran. A total of 620 reflective writing excerpts were coded using deductive content analysis across three cohorts in three different practicums during a two-year period. To analyse the data, this study applied a rubric for evaluating student teachers' reflections developed by Ward and McCotter. The analysis also involved Friedman's test and follow-up Wilcoxon tests. The results show that routine levels of reflection significantly decreased across the three practicums, while technical levels of reflection significantly increased. The higher levels of reflection, namely dialogic and transformative levels, were rarely found in student teachers' reflective writings across the practicums. This study discusses the need both to develop appropriate methods to guide student teachers in centralized contexts such as Iran and to investigate further aspects that enhance or hinder progress in the quality of reflection in teacher education.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Education for Teaching
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)277-289
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 27 May 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • 516 Educational sciences
  • Teacher education
  • reflection
  • quality of reflection
  • practicum
  • student teacher
  • Iran

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