How much is enough? The convergence of finite sample scattering properties to those of infinite media

Antti Penttilä, Johannes Markkanen, Timo Väisänen, Jukka Räbinä, Maxim Yurkin, Karri Muinonen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


We study the scattering properties of a cloud of particles. The particles are spherical, close to the incident wavelength in size, have a high albedo, and are randomly packed to 20% volume density. We show, using both numerically exact methods for solving the Maxwell equations and radiative-transfer-approximation methods, that the scattering properties of the cloud converge after about ten million particles in the system. After that, the backward-scattered properties of the system should estimate the properties of a macroscopic, practically infinite system. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

Original languageEnglish
Article number107524
JournalJournal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • 114 Physical sciences
  • Scattering
  • Particulate random media
  • Radiative transfer
  • Maxwell equations

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