Hydrophobic derivatives of 5-(hydroxymethyl)isophthalic acid that selectively induce apoptosis in leukemia cells but not in fibroblasts

Anna Galkin, Anu Surakka, Gustav Boije af Gennäs, Timo Ruotsalainen, Kari Kreander, Päivi Tammela, Kaarina Sivonen, Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma, Pia Vuorela

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New apoptosis modulating agents are widely sought, because failure in regulation of apoptosis is associated with many diseases. In this study, we have evaluated apoptosis inducing the potential of ten new hydrophobic derivatives of 5-(hydroxymethyl)isophthalic acid. Cancerous leukemia cells (HL-60) and non-malignant fibroblasts (Swiss 3T3) were incubated with test compounds for 24 h and morphologically evaluated. The changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi m) and caspase-3 activity were used to confirm the results and to study early induction of apoptosis. Cytotoxicity was determined using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and mutagenicity with miniaturized Ames-test. The most potent selective apoptosis inducers were compounds 1c and 1h having IC50 values of 41 and 23 mu M, respectively, in leukemia cells (HL-60) while effects in fibroblasts (Swiss 3T3) were insignificant. Reduction of 6 m and increase in caspase-3 activity were observed already during the first 2 hr in the HL-60 cells treated with compounds 1 c and 1 h. Neither of the compounds was cytotoxic or mutagenic. The results indicate that compounds 1 c and 1 h are selective apoptosis inducers and should be studied further for possible use in cancer therapy. Drug Dev. Res. 69: 185-195, 2008. (C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Original languageEnglish
JournalDrug Development Research
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)185-195
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 2008
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • 317 Pharmacy

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