Immunostimulation and Immunosuppression: Nanotechnology on the brink

Flavia Fontana, Patricia Isabel Figueiredo, Tomás Bauleth-Ramos, Alexandra Correia, Helder Almeida Santos

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleScientificpeer-review


Immunotherapy is revolutionizing current therapies in cancer and in autoimmune diseases, showing impressive results in clinical trials. Recently, the development of innovative nano-biomaterials has been focusing on the interactions between such materials and the immune system, both in the adaptive and innate branches. Biomaterials can display immunostimulative, neutral, or immunosuppressive interactions. Nanoparticles displaying immunostimulative potential are employed in the formulation of cancer vaccines, while immunosuppressive materials are being researched for the development of vaccines able to induce tolerance in autoimmune diseases. Here, the properties influencing the immunomodulation effect of nanomaterials are analyzed, followed by a detailed review of the recent applications of nanomaterials for the delivery of antigens, adjuvants, chemotherapeutics, and immunomodulatory drugs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1700347
JournalSmall methods
Issue number5
Number of pages33
Publication statusPublished - 11 May 2018
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal

Fields of Science

  • 221 Nano-technology
  • autoimmune diseases
  • cancer immunotherapy
  • drug-delivery systems
  • nanoparticles
  • vaccines
  • 317 Pharmacy

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