Impact of fish farming on antibiotic resistome and mobile elements in Baltic Sea sediment

Research output: ThesisDoctoral ThesisCollection of Articles

Abstract

Antibiotic resistance has become a serious threat to the efficacy of antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. Understanding the abundance and prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environmental resistome is important for maintaining the efficacy of antibiotics and predicting a risk of the ARGs spreading in the environment and moving into previously non-resistant bacteria, including human pathogens. Fish farms are an environmental reservoir of ARGs due to the treatment of fish with antibiotics that also are important for human medicine.

The two main topics of this thesis are (1) determining the abundance and diversity of ARGs and mobile elements in sediments impacted by fish farming and (2) investigating the major source of ARGs in the farm sediments in the Northern Baltic Sea. In addition, correlations between ARGs and mobile elements were examined to estimate the potential risk of ARG mobilization in the environment. This study employed a high-throughput qPCR array, which permits quantifying hundreds of ARGs and genes associated with mobile elements in the environmental resistome in a single experiment.

Fish farming impacts the composition of ARGs in sediments below fish farms in the Northern Baltic Sea. However, the impact is local and mostly limited to enrichment of ARGs associated with antibiotics used at the farms. In the current conditions, the risk of ARG spread from the farm sediments to the surrounding sediments is low in the Northern Baltic Sea. However, the enriched ARGs persist in the farm sediments during the 6-year observations even when the selection pressure of the antibiotics is negligible. Moreover, significant correlations between mobile elements and ARGs may imply the persistence of certain ARGs in the fish farming environments and their potential for mobilizing the ARGs to other bacteria including pathogens. The persistence of ARGs at the farm facilities is a threat to the efficacy of the antibiotics against fish diseases, potentially leading to fish production losses. We provide indirect evidence suggesting that certain ARGs are being constantly introduced by feces of the farmed fish into the sediments below the fish farms. Further studies could focus on investigating the development of ARGs in juvenile fish before they are introduced into the Baltic Sea open-cage farms. We conclude that a high throughput qPCR array is a powerful tool that provides unprecedented insights into the ARG composition in the environmental resistome associated with fish farming.
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • University of Helsinki
Supervisors/Advisors
  • Virta, Marko, Supervisor
  • Tamminen, Manu, Supervisor, External person
Award date17 Jun 2016
Place of PublicationHelsinki
Publisher
Print ISBNs978-951-51-2233-9
Electronic ISBNs978-951-51-2234-6
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jun 2016
MoE publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)

Fields of Science

  • 1172 Environmental sciences

Cite this

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title = "Impact of fish farming on antibiotic resistome and mobile elements in Baltic Sea sediment",
abstract = "Antibiotic resistance has become a serious threat to the efficacy of antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. Understanding the abundance and prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environmental resistome is important for maintaining the efficacy of antibiotics and predicting a risk of the ARGs spreading in the environment and moving into previously non-resistant bacteria, including human pathogens. Fish farms are an environmental reservoir of ARGs due to the treatment of fish with antibiotics that also are important for human medicine. The two main topics of this thesis are (1) determining the abundance and diversity of ARGs and mobile elements in sediments impacted by fish farming and (2) investigating the major source of ARGs in the farm sediments in the Northern Baltic Sea. In addition, correlations between ARGs and mobile elements were examined to estimate the potential risk of ARG mobilization in the environment. This study employed a high-throughput qPCR array, which permits quantifying hundreds of ARGs and genes associated with mobile elements in the environmental resistome in a single experiment. Fish farming impacts the composition of ARGs in sediments below fish farms in the Northern Baltic Sea. However, the impact is local and mostly limited to enrichment of ARGs associated with antibiotics used at the farms. In the current conditions, the risk of ARG spread from the farm sediments to the surrounding sediments is low in the Northern Baltic Sea. However, the enriched ARGs persist in the farm sediments during the 6-year observations even when the selection pressure of the antibiotics is negligible. Moreover, significant correlations between mobile elements and ARGs may imply the persistence of certain ARGs in the fish farming environments and their potential for mobilizing the ARGs to other bacteria including pathogens. The persistence of ARGs at the farm facilities is a threat to the efficacy of the antibiotics against fish diseases, potentially leading to fish production losses. We provide indirect evidence suggesting that certain ARGs are being constantly introduced by feces of the farmed fish into the sediments below the fish farms. Further studies could focus on investigating the development of ARGs in juvenile fish before they are introduced into the Baltic Sea open-cage farms. We conclude that a high throughput qPCR array is a powerful tool that provides unprecedented insights into the ARG composition in the environmental resistome associated with fish farming.",
keywords = "1172 Environmental sciences",
author = "Muziasari, {Windi Indra}",
year = "2016",
month = "6",
day = "17",
language = "English",
isbn = "978-951-51-2233-9",
series = "Dissertationes Schola doctoralis scientiae circumiectalis, alimentariae, biologicae. Universitatis Helsinkiensis",
publisher = "University of Helsinki",
number = "10/2016",
address = "Finland",
school = "University of Helsinki",

}

Impact of fish farming on antibiotic resistome and mobile elements in Baltic Sea sediment. / Muziasari, Windi Indra.

Helsinki : University of Helsinki, 2016. 44 p.

Research output: ThesisDoctoral ThesisCollection of Articles

TY - THES

T1 - Impact of fish farming on antibiotic resistome and mobile elements in Baltic Sea sediment

AU - Muziasari, Windi Indra

PY - 2016/6/17

Y1 - 2016/6/17

N2 - Antibiotic resistance has become a serious threat to the efficacy of antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. Understanding the abundance and prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environmental resistome is important for maintaining the efficacy of antibiotics and predicting a risk of the ARGs spreading in the environment and moving into previously non-resistant bacteria, including human pathogens. Fish farms are an environmental reservoir of ARGs due to the treatment of fish with antibiotics that also are important for human medicine. The two main topics of this thesis are (1) determining the abundance and diversity of ARGs and mobile elements in sediments impacted by fish farming and (2) investigating the major source of ARGs in the farm sediments in the Northern Baltic Sea. In addition, correlations between ARGs and mobile elements were examined to estimate the potential risk of ARG mobilization in the environment. This study employed a high-throughput qPCR array, which permits quantifying hundreds of ARGs and genes associated with mobile elements in the environmental resistome in a single experiment. Fish farming impacts the composition of ARGs in sediments below fish farms in the Northern Baltic Sea. However, the impact is local and mostly limited to enrichment of ARGs associated with antibiotics used at the farms. In the current conditions, the risk of ARG spread from the farm sediments to the surrounding sediments is low in the Northern Baltic Sea. However, the enriched ARGs persist in the farm sediments during the 6-year observations even when the selection pressure of the antibiotics is negligible. Moreover, significant correlations between mobile elements and ARGs may imply the persistence of certain ARGs in the fish farming environments and their potential for mobilizing the ARGs to other bacteria including pathogens. The persistence of ARGs at the farm facilities is a threat to the efficacy of the antibiotics against fish diseases, potentially leading to fish production losses. We provide indirect evidence suggesting that certain ARGs are being constantly introduced by feces of the farmed fish into the sediments below the fish farms. Further studies could focus on investigating the development of ARGs in juvenile fish before they are introduced into the Baltic Sea open-cage farms. We conclude that a high throughput qPCR array is a powerful tool that provides unprecedented insights into the ARG composition in the environmental resistome associated with fish farming.

AB - Antibiotic resistance has become a serious threat to the efficacy of antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. Understanding the abundance and prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environmental resistome is important for maintaining the efficacy of antibiotics and predicting a risk of the ARGs spreading in the environment and moving into previously non-resistant bacteria, including human pathogens. Fish farms are an environmental reservoir of ARGs due to the treatment of fish with antibiotics that also are important for human medicine. The two main topics of this thesis are (1) determining the abundance and diversity of ARGs and mobile elements in sediments impacted by fish farming and (2) investigating the major source of ARGs in the farm sediments in the Northern Baltic Sea. In addition, correlations between ARGs and mobile elements were examined to estimate the potential risk of ARG mobilization in the environment. This study employed a high-throughput qPCR array, which permits quantifying hundreds of ARGs and genes associated with mobile elements in the environmental resistome in a single experiment. Fish farming impacts the composition of ARGs in sediments below fish farms in the Northern Baltic Sea. However, the impact is local and mostly limited to enrichment of ARGs associated with antibiotics used at the farms. In the current conditions, the risk of ARG spread from the farm sediments to the surrounding sediments is low in the Northern Baltic Sea. However, the enriched ARGs persist in the farm sediments during the 6-year observations even when the selection pressure of the antibiotics is negligible. Moreover, significant correlations between mobile elements and ARGs may imply the persistence of certain ARGs in the fish farming environments and their potential for mobilizing the ARGs to other bacteria including pathogens. The persistence of ARGs at the farm facilities is a threat to the efficacy of the antibiotics against fish diseases, potentially leading to fish production losses. We provide indirect evidence suggesting that certain ARGs are being constantly introduced by feces of the farmed fish into the sediments below the fish farms. Further studies could focus on investigating the development of ARGs in juvenile fish before they are introduced into the Baltic Sea open-cage farms. We conclude that a high throughput qPCR array is a powerful tool that provides unprecedented insights into the ARG composition in the environmental resistome associated with fish farming.

KW - 1172 Environmental sciences

M3 - Doctoral Thesis

SN - 978-951-51-2233-9

T3 - Dissertationes Schola doctoralis scientiae circumiectalis, alimentariae, biologicae. Universitatis Helsinkiensis

PB - University of Helsinki

CY - Helsinki

ER -

Muziasari WI. Impact of fish farming on antibiotic resistome and mobile elements in Baltic Sea sediment. Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2016. 44 p. (Dissertationes Schola doctoralis scientiae circumiectalis, alimentariae, biologicae. Universitatis Helsinkiensis; 10/2016).