Life history variation across four decades in a diverse population complex of Atlantic salmon in a large subarctic river

Jaakko Erkinaro, Yann Czorlich, Panu Orell, Jorma Kuusela, Morten Falkegård, Maija Länsman, Henni Pulkkinen, Craig R. Primmer, Eero Niemelä

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

We used over 154000 scale samples collected from salmon fisheries in the large River Teno system over a 40-year period to quantify life history diversity and long-term trends. We identified 120 different life history strategies including combinations of smolt (2-8) and sea ages (1-5) and previous spawning events. Most strategies were rare: 60% of individuals matured after one year at sea following 3-5 years in freshwater. Age at maturity has changed with an increase in two-sea-winter (2SW) salmon and previous spawners (PS), and a decline in 3SW fish. Smolt age distribution showed a decreasing proportion of age-3 smolts while that of age-5 increased. Fishing gear and fishing season times selected for fish differing in life-history strategies. Temporal variation in life histories reflects changes both in fisheries and the changing environment. There was an inverse relationship between years spent in freshwater and sea age. Biocomplexity was manifested by the multiple year classes (6-11) present in annual runs that increased with years, reflecting an increase both in PS and sampling effort. The high number of cohorts spawning simultaneously each year indicates strong generation overlap, which has been suggested to maintain genetic diversity and thereby resilience via the portfolio effect.
Original languageEnglish
JournalCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Volume76
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)42-55
Number of pages14
ISSN0706-652X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • 1172 Environmental sciences
  • 114 Physical sciences
  • CLIMATE-CHANGE
  • TEMPORAL VARIATION
  • GENETIC-STRUCTURE
  • MIRAMICHI RIVER
  • NORTH-ATLANTIC
  • BARENTS SEA
  • MALE PARR
  • SALAR
  • FISH
  • AGE

Cite this

Erkinaro, Jaakko ; Czorlich, Yann ; Orell, Panu ; Kuusela, Jorma ; Falkegård, Morten ; Länsman, Maija ; Pulkkinen, Henni ; Primmer, Craig R. ; Niemelä, Eero. / Life history variation across four decades in a diverse population complex of Atlantic salmon in a large subarctic river. In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 2019 ; Vol. 76, No. 1. pp. 42-55.
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abstract = "We used over 154000 scale samples collected from salmon fisheries in the large River Teno system over a 40-year period to quantify life history diversity and long-term trends. We identified 120 different life history strategies including combinations of smolt (2-8) and sea ages (1-5) and previous spawning events. Most strategies were rare: 60{\%} of individuals matured after one year at sea following 3-5 years in freshwater. Age at maturity has changed with an increase in two-sea-winter (2SW) salmon and previous spawners (PS), and a decline in 3SW fish. Smolt age distribution showed a decreasing proportion of age-3 smolts while that of age-5 increased. Fishing gear and fishing season times selected for fish differing in life-history strategies. Temporal variation in life histories reflects changes both in fisheries and the changing environment. There was an inverse relationship between years spent in freshwater and sea age. Biocomplexity was manifested by the multiple year classes (6-11) present in annual runs that increased with years, reflecting an increase both in PS and sampling effort. The high number of cohorts spawning simultaneously each year indicates strong generation overlap, which has been suggested to maintain genetic diversity and thereby resilience via the portfolio effect.",
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author = "Jaakko Erkinaro and Yann Czorlich and Panu Orell and Jorma Kuusela and Morten Falkeg{\aa}rd and Maija L{\"a}nsman and Henni Pulkkinen and Primmer, {Craig R.} and Eero Niemel{\"a}",
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Life history variation across four decades in a diverse population complex of Atlantic salmon in a large subarctic river. / Erkinaro, Jaakko; Czorlich, Yann; Orell, Panu; Kuusela, Jorma; Falkegård, Morten; Länsman, Maija; Pulkkinen, Henni; Primmer, Craig R.; Niemelä, Eero.

In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 76, No. 1, 01.2019, p. 42-55.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Life history variation across four decades in a diverse population complex of Atlantic salmon in a large subarctic river

AU - Erkinaro, Jaakko

AU - Czorlich, Yann

AU - Orell, Panu

AU - Kuusela, Jorma

AU - Falkegård, Morten

AU - Länsman, Maija

AU - Pulkkinen, Henni

AU - Primmer, Craig R.

AU - Niemelä, Eero

PY - 2019/1

Y1 - 2019/1

N2 - We used over 154000 scale samples collected from salmon fisheries in the large River Teno system over a 40-year period to quantify life history diversity and long-term trends. We identified 120 different life history strategies including combinations of smolt (2-8) and sea ages (1-5) and previous spawning events. Most strategies were rare: 60% of individuals matured after one year at sea following 3-5 years in freshwater. Age at maturity has changed with an increase in two-sea-winter (2SW) salmon and previous spawners (PS), and a decline in 3SW fish. Smolt age distribution showed a decreasing proportion of age-3 smolts while that of age-5 increased. Fishing gear and fishing season times selected for fish differing in life-history strategies. Temporal variation in life histories reflects changes both in fisheries and the changing environment. There was an inverse relationship between years spent in freshwater and sea age. Biocomplexity was manifested by the multiple year classes (6-11) present in annual runs that increased with years, reflecting an increase both in PS and sampling effort. The high number of cohorts spawning simultaneously each year indicates strong generation overlap, which has been suggested to maintain genetic diversity and thereby resilience via the portfolio effect.

AB - We used over 154000 scale samples collected from salmon fisheries in the large River Teno system over a 40-year period to quantify life history diversity and long-term trends. We identified 120 different life history strategies including combinations of smolt (2-8) and sea ages (1-5) and previous spawning events. Most strategies were rare: 60% of individuals matured after one year at sea following 3-5 years in freshwater. Age at maturity has changed with an increase in two-sea-winter (2SW) salmon and previous spawners (PS), and a decline in 3SW fish. Smolt age distribution showed a decreasing proportion of age-3 smolts while that of age-5 increased. Fishing gear and fishing season times selected for fish differing in life-history strategies. Temporal variation in life histories reflects changes both in fisheries and the changing environment. There was an inverse relationship between years spent in freshwater and sea age. Biocomplexity was manifested by the multiple year classes (6-11) present in annual runs that increased with years, reflecting an increase both in PS and sampling effort. The high number of cohorts spawning simultaneously each year indicates strong generation overlap, which has been suggested to maintain genetic diversity and thereby resilience via the portfolio effect.

KW - 1172 Environmental sciences

KW - 114 Physical sciences

KW - CLIMATE-CHANGE

KW - TEMPORAL VARIATION

KW - GENETIC-STRUCTURE

KW - MIRAMICHI RIVER

KW - NORTH-ATLANTIC

KW - BARENTS SEA

KW - MALE PARR

KW - SALAR

KW - FISH

KW - AGE

U2 - 10.1139/cjfas-2017-0343

DO - 10.1139/cjfas-2017-0343

M3 - Article

VL - 76

SP - 42

EP - 55

JO - Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

JF - Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

SN - 0706-652X

IS - 1

ER -