"Background: We aimed to study whether variations in vaso-regulatory endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS 4a/b) and tissue-injury-associated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS R5/4) genes and smoking might explain gender differences in long-term survival after stroke. Methods: A total of 486 consecutive acute stroke patients, subjected to MRI, were followed up for a mean of 7.6 years. The eNOS 4a/b (n = 300) and iNOS R5/4 (n = 310) genotypes were determined by PCR. Of these patients, 213/300 (71.0%; eNOS 4a/b) and 223/310 (71.9%; iNOS R5/4) had died. Results: Despite the fact that women were older than men (72.3 vs. 69.5 years, p = 0.001) at recruitment, poor long-term survival was not sex-related, but instead predicted by age (p < 0.0001), cardiac failure (p = 0.004), smoking (p = 0.017), diabetes (p = 0.049), and variation in the eNOS gene locus (p = 0.033). Smoking and variations in both eNOS [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.53, p = 0.011] and iNOS loci (HR = 1.52, p = 0.073) were found to impact upon poor survival. We found a strong interaction between smoking, female sex, and the iNOS R5/4 genotype with the risk of death (HR = 3.23, CI = 1.51-6.90, p = 0.002). Compared with nonsmoking noncarriers, postmenopausal women who had been smokers and carried either the rare iNOS R5 allele (17.1%; HR = 4.23, CI = 1.84-9.75, p = 0.001) or the common eNOS 4b allele (71%; HR = 3.14, CI = 1.49-6.62, p = 0.003) were at a higher risk of death during the follow-up. These interactions were independent of each other, and were not found among men. Conclusions: The interaction between smoking and genetic variants of eNOS and iNOS predicts survival after stroke, especially among postmenopausal women. Copyright (C) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel."
Fields of Science
- 312 Clinical medicine