Manipulation of developmental function in turtles with notes on alligators

Jacqueline Moustakas-Verho, Rebecca McLennan, Jennifer Spengler, Paul Kulesa, Judith A. Cebra-Thomas

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterScientific


Reptiles have great taxonomic diversity that is reflected in their morphology, ecology, physiology, modes of reproduction, and development. Interest in comparative and evolutionary developmental biology makes protocols for the study of reptile embryos invaluable resources. The relatively large size, seasonal breeding, and long gestation times of turtles epitomize the challenges faced by the developmental biologist. We describe protocols for the preparation of turtle embryos for ex ovo culture, electroporation, in situ hybridization, and micro-computed tomography. Because these protocols have been adapted and optimized from methods used for frog, chick, and mouse embryos, it is likely that they could be used for other reptilian species. Notes are included for alligator embryos where appropriate.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationVertebrate Embryogenesis : Embryological, Cellular and Genetic Methods
Number of pages17
Publication dateFeb 2019
ISBN (Print)978-1-61779-209-0
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-61779-210-6
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2019
MoE publication typeB2 Book chapter

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press
ISSN (Electronic)1064-3745

Fields of Science

  • 1182 Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology

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