Microbe repelling coated stainless steel analysed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and physicochemical methods

Mari Raulio, Mikael Järn, Juhana Ahola, Jouko Peltonen, Jarl B Rosenholm, Sanna Tervakangas, Jukka Kolehmainen, Timo Ruokolainen, Pekka Narko, Mirja Salkinoja-Salonen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Coating of stainless steel with diamond-like carbon or certain fluoropolymers reduced or almost eliminated adhesion and biofilm growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Deinococcus geothermalis, Meiothermus silvanus and Pseudoxanthomonas taiwanensis. These species are known to be pertinent biofilm formers on medical implants or in the wet-end of paper machines. Field emission scanning electron microscopic analysis showed that Staph. epidermidis, D. geothermalis and M. silvanus grew on stainless steel using thread-like organelles for adhesion and biofilm formation. The adhesion threads were fewer in number on fluoropolymer-coated steel than on plain steel and absent when the same strains were grown in liquid culture. Psx. taiwanensis adhered to the same surfaces by a mechanism involving cell ghosts on which the biofilm of live cells grew. Hydrophilic (diamond-like carbon) or hydrophobic (fluoropolymer) coatings reduced the adherence of the four test bacteria on different steels. Selected topographic parameters, including root-mean-square roughness (S-q), skewness (S-sk) and surface kurtosis (S-ku), were analysed by atomic force microscopy. The surfaces that best repelled microbial adhesion of the tested bacteria had higher skewness values than those only slightly repelling. Water contact angle, measured (theta(m)) or roughness corrected (theta(y)), affected the tendency for biofilm growth in a different manner for the four test bacteria.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)751-760
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2008
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • 119 Other natural sciences

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