Quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies have indicated growth hormone receptor (GHR) as a candidate gene affecting cattle milk yield and composition. In order to characterize genetic variation at GHR in cattle, we studied European and East African breeds with different histories of selection, and Bos grunniens, Ovis aries, Sus scrofa, Bison bison and Rangifer tarandus as references. We sequenced most of the cytoplasmic domain (900 bp of exon 10), 89 bp of exon 8, including the putative causative mutation for the QTL effect, and 390 bp of intron 8 for comparison. In the cytoplasmic domain, seven synonymous and seven non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified in cattle. Three non-synonymous SNPs were found in sheep and one synonymous SNP in yak, while other studied species were monomorphic. Three major haplotypes were observed, one unique to African breeds, one unique to European breeds and one shared. Bison and yak haplotypes are derivatives of the European haplotype lineage. Most of the exon 10 non-synonymous cattle SNPs appear at phylogenetically highly conserved sites. The polymorphisms in exon 10 cluster around a ruminant-specific tyrosine residue, suggesting that this site may act as an additional signalling domain of GHR in ruminants. Alternative explanations for the persistent polymorphism include balancing selection, hitch-hiking, pleiotropic or sexually antagonistic fitness effects or relaxed functional constraints.
|Journal||Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Biological Sciences|
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - 2008|
|MoE publication type||A1 Journal article-refereed|
Fields of Science
- 111 Mathematics