Nanotip evaporation under high electric field

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientific

Abstract

Vacuum arcing (also known as breakdown), is a major limiting factor in various applications such as particle accelerators, fusion reactors etc. Although it is well-established that vacuum arcs appear after intense Field electron Emission (FE), the physical mechanism that leads from FE to the ignition of plasma is not yet understood. A common hypothesis is that intense FE leads to excessive heating of the cathode, which causes its deformation, and eventually material evaporation and plasma formation. However, this process has never been observed experimentally or fully understood theoretically. Here we present atomistic simulations of this process that give an insight to it and provide possible mechanisms that can explain the initiation of plasma. Our simulations take into account various physical processes, namely field-induced stresses, electron emission with finite-size and space-charge effects, Nottingham and Joule heating. We find that under certain conditions the cathode apex melts and the field-induced stress deforms it to become longer and sharper. This initiates a positive feedback process that leads to extremely high local temperatures, and causes evaporation of material. This mechanism might give a plausible explanation to the initiation of plasma.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication30th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference (IVNC)
EditorsChristopher Langer, Robert Ławrowski
Number of pages2
Place of PublicationPiscataway, NJ
PublisherIEEE
Publication date14 Jul 2017
Pages38-39
ISBN (Print)978-1-5090-3976-0
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-5090-3975-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jul 2017
MoE publication typeB3 Article in conference proceedings
EventInternational Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference - Herzogssaal Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
Duration: 10 Jul 201714 Jul 2017
Conference number: 30
http://www.vacuumnanoelectronics.org

Publication series

NameInternational Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference
ISSN (Electronic)2380-6311

Fields of Science

  • 114 Physical sciences

Cite this

Kyritsakis, A., Veske, M., Djurabekova, F. G., & Zadin, V. (2017). Nanotip evaporation under high electric field. In C. Langer, & R. Ławrowski (Eds.), 30th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference (IVNC) (pp. 38-39). (International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/IVNC.2017.8051540
Kyritsakis, Andreas ; Veske, Mihkel ; Djurabekova, Flyura Gatifovna ; Zadin, Vahur. / Nanotip evaporation under high electric field. 30th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference (IVNC). editor / Christopher Langer ; Robert Ławrowski. Piscataway, NJ : IEEE, 2017. pp. 38-39 (International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference).
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title = "Nanotip evaporation under high electric field",
abstract = "Vacuum arcing (also known as breakdown), is a major limiting factor in various applications such as particle accelerators, fusion reactors etc. Although it is well-established that vacuum arcs appear after intense Field electron Emission (FE), the physical mechanism that leads from FE to the ignition of plasma is not yet understood. A common hypothesis is that intense FE leads to excessive heating of the cathode, which causes its deformation, and eventually material evaporation and plasma formation. However, this process has never been observed experimentally or fully understood theoretically. Here we present atomistic simulations of this process that give an insight to it and provide possible mechanisms that can explain the initiation of plasma. Our simulations take into account various physical processes, namely field-induced stresses, electron emission with finite-size and space-charge effects, Nottingham and Joule heating. We find that under certain conditions the cathode apex melts and the field-induced stress deforms it to become longer and sharper. This initiates a positive feedback process that leads to extremely high local temperatures, and causes evaporation of material. This mechanism might give a plausible explanation to the initiation of plasma.",
keywords = "114 Physical sciences",
author = "Andreas Kyritsakis and Mihkel Veske and Djurabekova, {Flyura Gatifovna} and Vahur Zadin",
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Kyritsakis, A, Veske, M, Djurabekova, FG & Zadin, V 2017, Nanotip evaporation under high electric field. in C Langer & R Ławrowski (eds), 30th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference (IVNC). International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference, IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, pp. 38-39, International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference, Regensburg, Germany, 10/07/2017. https://doi.org/10.1109/IVNC.2017.8051540

Nanotip evaporation under high electric field. / Kyritsakis, Andreas; Veske, Mihkel; Djurabekova, Flyura Gatifovna; Zadin, Vahur.

30th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference (IVNC). ed. / Christopher Langer; Robert Ławrowski. Piscataway, NJ : IEEE, 2017. p. 38-39 (International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientific

TY - GEN

T1 - Nanotip evaporation under high electric field

AU - Kyritsakis, Andreas

AU - Veske, Mihkel

AU - Djurabekova, Flyura Gatifovna

AU - Zadin, Vahur

PY - 2017/7/14

Y1 - 2017/7/14

N2 - Vacuum arcing (also known as breakdown), is a major limiting factor in various applications such as particle accelerators, fusion reactors etc. Although it is well-established that vacuum arcs appear after intense Field electron Emission (FE), the physical mechanism that leads from FE to the ignition of plasma is not yet understood. A common hypothesis is that intense FE leads to excessive heating of the cathode, which causes its deformation, and eventually material evaporation and plasma formation. However, this process has never been observed experimentally or fully understood theoretically. Here we present atomistic simulations of this process that give an insight to it and provide possible mechanisms that can explain the initiation of plasma. Our simulations take into account various physical processes, namely field-induced stresses, electron emission with finite-size and space-charge effects, Nottingham and Joule heating. We find that under certain conditions the cathode apex melts and the field-induced stress deforms it to become longer and sharper. This initiates a positive feedback process that leads to extremely high local temperatures, and causes evaporation of material. This mechanism might give a plausible explanation to the initiation of plasma.

AB - Vacuum arcing (also known as breakdown), is a major limiting factor in various applications such as particle accelerators, fusion reactors etc. Although it is well-established that vacuum arcs appear after intense Field electron Emission (FE), the physical mechanism that leads from FE to the ignition of plasma is not yet understood. A common hypothesis is that intense FE leads to excessive heating of the cathode, which causes its deformation, and eventually material evaporation and plasma formation. However, this process has never been observed experimentally or fully understood theoretically. Here we present atomistic simulations of this process that give an insight to it and provide possible mechanisms that can explain the initiation of plasma. Our simulations take into account various physical processes, namely field-induced stresses, electron emission with finite-size and space-charge effects, Nottingham and Joule heating. We find that under certain conditions the cathode apex melts and the field-induced stress deforms it to become longer and sharper. This initiates a positive feedback process that leads to extremely high local temperatures, and causes evaporation of material. This mechanism might give a plausible explanation to the initiation of plasma.

KW - 114 Physical sciences

U2 - 10.1109/IVNC.2017.8051540

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M3 - Conference contribution

SN - 978-1-5090-3976-0

T3 - International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference

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BT - 30th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference (IVNC)

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ER -

Kyritsakis A, Veske M, Djurabekova FG, Zadin V. Nanotip evaporation under high electric field. In Langer C, Ławrowski R, editors, 30th International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference (IVNC). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE. 2017. p. 38-39. (International Vacuum Nanoelectronics Conference). https://doi.org/10.1109/IVNC.2017.8051540