Neural activity patterns between different executive tasks are more similar in adulthood than in adolescence

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Adolescence is a time of ongoing neural maturation and cognitive development, especially regarding executive functions. In the current study, age-related differences in the neural correlates of different executive functions were tracked by comparing three age groups consisting of adolescents and young adults.

Methods: Brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 167 human participants (13- to 14-year-old middle adolescents, 16- to 17-year-old late adolescents and 20-to 24-year-old young adults; 80 female, 87 male) while they performed attention and working memory tasks. The tasks were designed to tap into four putative sub-processes of executive function: division of attention, inhibition of distractors, working memory, and attention switching.

Results: Behaviorally, our results demonstrated superior task performance in older participants across all task types. When brain activity was examined, young adult participants demonstrated a greater degree of overlap between brain regions recruited by the different executive tasks than adolescent participants. Similarly, functional connectivity between frontoparietal cortical regions was less task specific in the young adult participants than in adolescent participants.

Conclusions: Together, these results demonstrate that the similarity between different executive processes in terms of both neural recruitment and functional connectivity increases with age from middle adolescence to early adulthood, possibly contributing to age-related behavioral improvements in executive functioning. These developmental changes in brain recruitment may reflect a more homogenous morphological organization between process-specific neural networks, increased reliance on a more domain-general network involved in executive processing, or developmental changes in cognitive strategy.
Original languageEnglish
Article number01063
JournalBrain and Behavior
Volume8
Issue number9
Number of pages16
ISSN2162-3279
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • adolescence
  • brain imaging
  • development
  • executive functions
  • fMRI
  • functional connectivity
  • INTRINSIC FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY
  • LATENT-VARIABLE ANALYSIS
  • WORKING-MEMORY
  • COGNITIVE CONTROL
  • LATE CHILDHOOD
  • RESPONSE-INHIBITION
  • SELECTIVE ATTENTION
  • CORTICAL ACTIVITY
  • BRAIN-DEVELOPMENT
  • RESTING STATE
  • 515 Psychology

Cite this

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title = "Neural activity patterns between different executive tasks are more similar in adulthood than in adolescence",
abstract = "Background: Adolescence is a time of ongoing neural maturation and cognitive development, especially regarding executive functions. In the current study, age-related differences in the neural correlates of different executive functions were tracked by comparing three age groups consisting of adolescents and young adults. Methods: Brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 167 human participants (13- to 14-year-old middle adolescents, 16- to 17-year-old late adolescents and 20-to 24-year-old young adults; 80 female, 87 male) while they performed attention and working memory tasks. The tasks were designed to tap into four putative sub-processes of executive function: division of attention, inhibition of distractors, working memory, and attention switching. Results: Behaviorally, our results demonstrated superior task performance in older participants across all task types. When brain activity was examined, young adult participants demonstrated a greater degree of overlap between brain regions recruited by the different executive tasks than adolescent participants. Similarly, functional connectivity between frontoparietal cortical regions was less task specific in the young adult participants than in adolescent participants. Conclusions: Together, these results demonstrate that the similarity between different executive processes in terms of both neural recruitment and functional connectivity increases with age from middle adolescence to early adulthood, possibly contributing to age-related behavioral improvements in executive functioning. These developmental changes in brain recruitment may reflect a more homogenous morphological organization between process-specific neural networks, increased reliance on a more domain-general network involved in executive processing, or developmental changes in cognitive strategy.",
keywords = "adolescence, brain imaging, development, executive functions, fMRI, functional connectivity, INTRINSIC FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY, LATENT-VARIABLE ANALYSIS, WORKING-MEMORY, COGNITIVE CONTROL, LATE CHILDHOOD, RESPONSE-INHIBITION, SELECTIVE ATTENTION, CORTICAL ACTIVITY, BRAIN-DEVELOPMENT, RESTING STATE, 515 Psychology",
author = "Mona Moisala and Viljami Salmela and Synn{\"o}ve Carlson and Katariina Salmela-Aro and Kirsti Lonka and Kai Hakkarainen and Kimmo Alho",
year = "2018",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1002/brb3.1063",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
journal = "Brain and Behavior",
issn = "2162-3279",
publisher = "Wiley",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Neural activity patterns between different executive tasks are more similar in adulthood than in adolescence

AU - Moisala, Mona

AU - Salmela, Viljami

AU - Carlson, Synnöve

AU - Salmela-Aro, Katariina

AU - Lonka, Kirsti

AU - Hakkarainen, Kai

AU - Alho, Kimmo

PY - 2018/9

Y1 - 2018/9

N2 - Background: Adolescence is a time of ongoing neural maturation and cognitive development, especially regarding executive functions. In the current study, age-related differences in the neural correlates of different executive functions were tracked by comparing three age groups consisting of adolescents and young adults. Methods: Brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 167 human participants (13- to 14-year-old middle adolescents, 16- to 17-year-old late adolescents and 20-to 24-year-old young adults; 80 female, 87 male) while they performed attention and working memory tasks. The tasks were designed to tap into four putative sub-processes of executive function: division of attention, inhibition of distractors, working memory, and attention switching. Results: Behaviorally, our results demonstrated superior task performance in older participants across all task types. When brain activity was examined, young adult participants demonstrated a greater degree of overlap between brain regions recruited by the different executive tasks than adolescent participants. Similarly, functional connectivity between frontoparietal cortical regions was less task specific in the young adult participants than in adolescent participants. Conclusions: Together, these results demonstrate that the similarity between different executive processes in terms of both neural recruitment and functional connectivity increases with age from middle adolescence to early adulthood, possibly contributing to age-related behavioral improvements in executive functioning. These developmental changes in brain recruitment may reflect a more homogenous morphological organization between process-specific neural networks, increased reliance on a more domain-general network involved in executive processing, or developmental changes in cognitive strategy.

AB - Background: Adolescence is a time of ongoing neural maturation and cognitive development, especially regarding executive functions. In the current study, age-related differences in the neural correlates of different executive functions were tracked by comparing three age groups consisting of adolescents and young adults. Methods: Brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 167 human participants (13- to 14-year-old middle adolescents, 16- to 17-year-old late adolescents and 20-to 24-year-old young adults; 80 female, 87 male) while they performed attention and working memory tasks. The tasks were designed to tap into four putative sub-processes of executive function: division of attention, inhibition of distractors, working memory, and attention switching. Results: Behaviorally, our results demonstrated superior task performance in older participants across all task types. When brain activity was examined, young adult participants demonstrated a greater degree of overlap between brain regions recruited by the different executive tasks than adolescent participants. Similarly, functional connectivity between frontoparietal cortical regions was less task specific in the young adult participants than in adolescent participants. Conclusions: Together, these results demonstrate that the similarity between different executive processes in terms of both neural recruitment and functional connectivity increases with age from middle adolescence to early adulthood, possibly contributing to age-related behavioral improvements in executive functioning. These developmental changes in brain recruitment may reflect a more homogenous morphological organization between process-specific neural networks, increased reliance on a more domain-general network involved in executive processing, or developmental changes in cognitive strategy.

KW - adolescence

KW - brain imaging

KW - development

KW - executive functions

KW - fMRI

KW - functional connectivity

KW - INTRINSIC FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY

KW - LATENT-VARIABLE ANALYSIS

KW - WORKING-MEMORY

KW - COGNITIVE CONTROL

KW - LATE CHILDHOOD

KW - RESPONSE-INHIBITION

KW - SELECTIVE ATTENTION

KW - CORTICAL ACTIVITY

KW - BRAIN-DEVELOPMENT

KW - RESTING STATE

KW - 515 Psychology

U2 - 10.1002/brb3.1063

DO - 10.1002/brb3.1063

M3 - Article

VL - 8

JO - Brain and Behavior

JF - Brain and Behavior

SN - 2162-3279

IS - 9

M1 - 01063

ER -