Oncolytic viruses for antigen delivery

Erkko Ylösmäki, Vincenzo Cerullo, John C. Bell, Marie Claude Bourgeois-Daigneault

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterScientificpeer-review

Abstract

New immunotherapies are rapidly changing the way we treat cancer. These immunotherapies aim to harness the power of a patient’s own immune system to control and, in some instances, eliminate cancer. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) that have been designed to specifically kill cancer cells and leave healthy cells unharmed are being used as immunotherapies to treat various types of cancers. OVs can increase anticancer immunity via the oncolysis-driven release of tumor-associated antigens, leading to in situ anticancer vaccination effects by (1) modulating the immunosuppressive microenvironment of the tumor and (2) attracting immune cells, such as tumor-killing effector T cells into cancerous tissue. OVs can be engineered to deliver immune-activating molecules, such as cytokines or tumor antigens, to further enhance the anticancer effects of these viruses. Furthermore, OVs can be combined with other cancer immunotherapies, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors. Here, we discuss the inherent anticancer immune activating characteristics of OVs, and how OV-induced anticancer immunity can be enhanced and targeted against specific cancer (neo)antigens by rational engineering of OVs.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCancer Vaccines as Immunotherapy of Cancer
Number of pages19
PublisherElsevier
Publication date1 Jan 2022
Pages1-19
ISBN (Print)9780128239025
ISBN (Electronic)9780128239018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022
MoE publication typeA3 Book chapter

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Fields of Science

  • cancer vaccines
  • neoantigen vaccines
  • Oncolytic viruses
  • personalized cancer vaccines
  • 317 Pharmacy
  • 3122 Cancers

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