Political Exclusions Attributable to Poor Relief in Early Twentieth-Century Finland = Exclusion du droit de vote des bénéficiaires de l’aide sociale en Finlande au début du xxe siècle

Elina Einiö, Hanna Wass, Miia Heinonen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Finland was a pioneer in the democratization of Europe, granting women the right to vote on equal terms with men as early as 1906. In principle, men and women from all social classes were permitted to vote and stand for election. However, a proportion of the adult population – those who regularly received poor relief – was excluded from suffrage. Using internationally unique microdata on over 19,000 poor-relief recipients and the corresponding population registers of two provinces in Finland, we estimated the extent to which gender and age determined disenfranchisement due to poor relief during the 1911 parliamentary elections. Our results indicate that a disproportionate share of women, and especially of older people, were disenfranchised due to poor relief. The analysis provides novel evidence of the hidden discriminatory effects of an early welfare scheme. The system of poor relief not only provided support for older people in need but also disqualified many of them from political citizenship and introduced gender inequality in basic rights.
Original languageFrench
JournalPopulation (French Edition)
Volume73
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)131-147
Number of pages17
ISSN0032-4663
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • 5141 Sociology
  • 517 Political science

Cite this

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title = "Political Exclusions Attributable to Poor Relief in Early Twentieth-Century Finland = Exclusion du droit de vote des b{\'e}n{\'e}ficiaires de l’aide sociale en Finlande au d{\'e}but du xxe si{\`e}cle",
abstract = "Finland was a pioneer in the democratization of Europe, granting women the right to vote on equal terms with men as early as 1906. In principle, men and women from all social classes were permitted to vote and stand for election. However, a proportion of the adult population – those who regularly received poor relief – was excluded from suffrage. Using internationally unique microdata on over 19,000 poor-relief recipients and the corresponding population registers of two provinces in Finland, we estimated the extent to which gender and age determined disenfranchisement due to poor relief during the 1911 parliamentary elections. Our results indicate that a disproportionate share of women, and especially of older people, were disenfranchised due to poor relief. The analysis provides novel evidence of the hidden discriminatory effects of an early welfare scheme. The system of poor relief not only provided support for older people in need but also disqualified many of them from political citizenship and introduced gender inequality in basic rights.",
keywords = "5141 Sociologi, 517 Statsvetenskap",
author = "Elina Eini{\"o} and Hanna Wass and Miia Heinonen",
note = "En fran{\cc}ais sur le pages 137-153.",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.3917/popu.1801.0137",
language = "franska",
volume = "73",
pages = "131--147",
journal = "Population (French Edition)",
issn = "0032-4663",
publisher = "Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Political Exclusions Attributable to Poor Relief in Early Twentieth-Century Finland = Exclusion du droit de vote des bénéficiaires de l’aide sociale en Finlande au début du xxe siècle

AU - Einiö, Elina

AU - Wass, Hanna

AU - Heinonen, Miia

N1 - En français sur le pages 137-153.

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Finland was a pioneer in the democratization of Europe, granting women the right to vote on equal terms with men as early as 1906. In principle, men and women from all social classes were permitted to vote and stand for election. However, a proportion of the adult population – those who regularly received poor relief – was excluded from suffrage. Using internationally unique microdata on over 19,000 poor-relief recipients and the corresponding population registers of two provinces in Finland, we estimated the extent to which gender and age determined disenfranchisement due to poor relief during the 1911 parliamentary elections. Our results indicate that a disproportionate share of women, and especially of older people, were disenfranchised due to poor relief. The analysis provides novel evidence of the hidden discriminatory effects of an early welfare scheme. The system of poor relief not only provided support for older people in need but also disqualified many of them from political citizenship and introduced gender inequality in basic rights.

AB - Finland was a pioneer in the democratization of Europe, granting women the right to vote on equal terms with men as early as 1906. In principle, men and women from all social classes were permitted to vote and stand for election. However, a proportion of the adult population – those who regularly received poor relief – was excluded from suffrage. Using internationally unique microdata on over 19,000 poor-relief recipients and the corresponding population registers of two provinces in Finland, we estimated the extent to which gender and age determined disenfranchisement due to poor relief during the 1911 parliamentary elections. Our results indicate that a disproportionate share of women, and especially of older people, were disenfranchised due to poor relief. The analysis provides novel evidence of the hidden discriminatory effects of an early welfare scheme. The system of poor relief not only provided support for older people in need but also disqualified many of them from political citizenship and introduced gender inequality in basic rights.

KW - 5141 Sociologi

KW - 517 Statsvetenskap

U2 - 10.3917/popu.1801.0137

DO - 10.3917/popu.1801.0137

M3 - Artikel

VL - 73

SP - 131

EP - 147

JO - Population (French Edition)

JF - Population (French Edition)

SN - 0032-4663

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ER -