Radiogenic heat production analysis of Fennoscandian Shield and adjacent areas in Sweden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

In northern Europe, radiogenic heat production of surface rocks has been extensively studied in Finland and Norway alike. This paper presents a heat production analysis of Sweden, based on a rock outcrop data compilation obtained from the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU). The study area comprises Precambrian Shield, Caledonian and platform cover areas. Altogether 39933 samples with uranium, thorium and potassium concentration (C-U, C-Th and C-K) and density () data were available. Heat production (HP) was calculated using raw point data, binning on a regular grid, and averaging by bedrock units in the geological map. Methods based on raw point data and grid-based binning resulted in HP values of 2.5 +/- 4.1 and 2.5 +/- 5.6 Wm(-3), respectively, while averaging by lithology produced a lower value of 2.4 +/- 1.7 Wm(-3). Limiting the lithology-based averaging to Precambrian bedrockareas resulted in heat production of 2.4 +/- 1.6 Wm(-3). Due to the small geographic extent of area covered by sediments, this is similar to the Precambrian-only value. Regardless of the calculation method, heat production in Sweden is considerably higher than the corresponding value for Finland. The Swedish platform cover had apparently the lowestheat production (1.0 +/- 1.8 Wm(-3)) of all units but the presence of Precambrian rocks below the sediments means that this value strongly misleads if used to represent the entire upper crust. Svecokarelian (Svecofennian) and Sveconorwegian rocks, which comprised 94.0 per cent of all individual observations, had heat production values of 2.6 +/- 1.8 and 1.7 +/- 1.4 mu Wm(-3), respectively. Although the Swedish data still have large spatial gaps when compared to Finnish data, most bedrock units in Sweden are covered. It is obvious that the higher heat flow of Sweden compared to that of Finland is caused by near-surface (i.e. upper crustal) heat production, and crustal differentiation in Sweden is also larger.

Original languageEnglish
JournalGeophysical Journal International
Volume218
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)640-654
Number of pages15
ISSN0956-540X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • 1171 Geosciences
  • Composition and structure of the continental crust
  • Heat flow
  • Europe
  • Spatial analysis
  • Cratons
  • Crustal structure
  • PERMIAN GEOLOGICAL PROVINCES
  • U-PB
  • FLOW DATA
  • LITHOSPHERE
  • FINLAND
  • NORWAY
  • ROCKS
  • AGE
  • GEOCHEMISTRY
  • STRATIGRAPHY

Cite this

@article{178bb732f66c42b5b4002dfc34336a66,
title = "Radiogenic heat production analysis of Fennoscandian Shield and adjacent areas in Sweden",
abstract = "In northern Europe, radiogenic heat production of surface rocks has been extensively studied in Finland and Norway alike. This paper presents a heat production analysis of Sweden, based on a rock outcrop data compilation obtained from the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU). The study area comprises Precambrian Shield, Caledonian and platform cover areas. Altogether 39933 samples with uranium, thorium and potassium concentration (C-U, C-Th and C-K) and density () data were available. Heat production (HP) was calculated using raw point data, binning on a regular grid, and averaging by bedrock units in the geological map. Methods based on raw point data and grid-based binning resulted in HP values of 2.5 +/- 4.1 and 2.5 +/- 5.6 Wm(-3), respectively, while averaging by lithology produced a lower value of 2.4 +/- 1.7 Wm(-3). Limiting the lithology-based averaging to Precambrian bedrockareas resulted in heat production of 2.4 +/- 1.6 Wm(-3). Due to the small geographic extent of area covered by sediments, this is similar to the Precambrian-only value. Regardless of the calculation method, heat production in Sweden is considerably higher than the corresponding value for Finland. The Swedish platform cover had apparently the lowestheat production (1.0 +/- 1.8 Wm(-3)) of all units but the presence of Precambrian rocks below the sediments means that this value strongly misleads if used to represent the entire upper crust. Svecokarelian (Svecofennian) and Sveconorwegian rocks, which comprised 94.0 per cent of all individual observations, had heat production values of 2.6 +/- 1.8 and 1.7 +/- 1.4 mu Wm(-3), respectively. Although the Swedish data still have large spatial gaps when compared to Finnish data, most bedrock units in Sweden are covered. It is obvious that the higher heat flow of Sweden compared to that of Finland is caused by near-surface (i.e. upper crustal) heat production, and crustal differentiation in Sweden is also larger.",
keywords = "1171 Geosciences, Composition and structure of the continental crust, Heat flow, Europe, Spatial analysis, Cratons, Crustal structure, PERMIAN GEOLOGICAL PROVINCES, U-PB, FLOW DATA, LITHOSPHERE, FINLAND, NORWAY, ROCKS, AGE, GEOCHEMISTRY, STRATIGRAPHY",
author = "Veikkolainen, {Toni Henri Kristian} and Kukkonen, {Ilmo Tapio} and Jens-Ove N{\"a}slund",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1093/gji/ggz186",
language = "English",
volume = "218",
pages = "640--654",
journal = "Geophysical Journal International",
issn = "0956-540X",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "1",

}

Radiogenic heat production analysis of Fennoscandian Shield and adjacent areas in Sweden. / Veikkolainen, Toni Henri Kristian; Kukkonen, Ilmo Tapio; Näslund, Jens-Ove.

In: Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 218, No. 1, 07.2019, p. 640-654.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Radiogenic heat production analysis of Fennoscandian Shield and adjacent areas in Sweden

AU - Veikkolainen, Toni Henri Kristian

AU - Kukkonen, Ilmo Tapio

AU - Näslund, Jens-Ove

PY - 2019/7

Y1 - 2019/7

N2 - In northern Europe, radiogenic heat production of surface rocks has been extensively studied in Finland and Norway alike. This paper presents a heat production analysis of Sweden, based on a rock outcrop data compilation obtained from the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU). The study area comprises Precambrian Shield, Caledonian and platform cover areas. Altogether 39933 samples with uranium, thorium and potassium concentration (C-U, C-Th and C-K) and density () data were available. Heat production (HP) was calculated using raw point data, binning on a regular grid, and averaging by bedrock units in the geological map. Methods based on raw point data and grid-based binning resulted in HP values of 2.5 +/- 4.1 and 2.5 +/- 5.6 Wm(-3), respectively, while averaging by lithology produced a lower value of 2.4 +/- 1.7 Wm(-3). Limiting the lithology-based averaging to Precambrian bedrockareas resulted in heat production of 2.4 +/- 1.6 Wm(-3). Due to the small geographic extent of area covered by sediments, this is similar to the Precambrian-only value. Regardless of the calculation method, heat production in Sweden is considerably higher than the corresponding value for Finland. The Swedish platform cover had apparently the lowestheat production (1.0 +/- 1.8 Wm(-3)) of all units but the presence of Precambrian rocks below the sediments means that this value strongly misleads if used to represent the entire upper crust. Svecokarelian (Svecofennian) and Sveconorwegian rocks, which comprised 94.0 per cent of all individual observations, had heat production values of 2.6 +/- 1.8 and 1.7 +/- 1.4 mu Wm(-3), respectively. Although the Swedish data still have large spatial gaps when compared to Finnish data, most bedrock units in Sweden are covered. It is obvious that the higher heat flow of Sweden compared to that of Finland is caused by near-surface (i.e. upper crustal) heat production, and crustal differentiation in Sweden is also larger.

AB - In northern Europe, radiogenic heat production of surface rocks has been extensively studied in Finland and Norway alike. This paper presents a heat production analysis of Sweden, based on a rock outcrop data compilation obtained from the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU). The study area comprises Precambrian Shield, Caledonian and platform cover areas. Altogether 39933 samples with uranium, thorium and potassium concentration (C-U, C-Th and C-K) and density () data were available. Heat production (HP) was calculated using raw point data, binning on a regular grid, and averaging by bedrock units in the geological map. Methods based on raw point data and grid-based binning resulted in HP values of 2.5 +/- 4.1 and 2.5 +/- 5.6 Wm(-3), respectively, while averaging by lithology produced a lower value of 2.4 +/- 1.7 Wm(-3). Limiting the lithology-based averaging to Precambrian bedrockareas resulted in heat production of 2.4 +/- 1.6 Wm(-3). Due to the small geographic extent of area covered by sediments, this is similar to the Precambrian-only value. Regardless of the calculation method, heat production in Sweden is considerably higher than the corresponding value for Finland. The Swedish platform cover had apparently the lowestheat production (1.0 +/- 1.8 Wm(-3)) of all units but the presence of Precambrian rocks below the sediments means that this value strongly misleads if used to represent the entire upper crust. Svecokarelian (Svecofennian) and Sveconorwegian rocks, which comprised 94.0 per cent of all individual observations, had heat production values of 2.6 +/- 1.8 and 1.7 +/- 1.4 mu Wm(-3), respectively. Although the Swedish data still have large spatial gaps when compared to Finnish data, most bedrock units in Sweden are covered. It is obvious that the higher heat flow of Sweden compared to that of Finland is caused by near-surface (i.e. upper crustal) heat production, and crustal differentiation in Sweden is also larger.

KW - 1171 Geosciences

KW - Composition and structure of the continental crust

KW - Heat flow

KW - Europe

KW - Spatial analysis

KW - Cratons

KW - Crustal structure

KW - PERMIAN GEOLOGICAL PROVINCES

KW - U-PB

KW - FLOW DATA

KW - LITHOSPHERE

KW - FINLAND

KW - NORWAY

KW - ROCKS

KW - AGE

KW - GEOCHEMISTRY

KW - STRATIGRAPHY

U2 - 10.1093/gji/ggz186

DO - 10.1093/gji/ggz186

M3 - Article

VL - 218

SP - 640

EP - 654

JO - Geophysical Journal International

JF - Geophysical Journal International

SN - 0956-540X

IS - 1

ER -