Realistic low-doses of two emerging contaminants change size distribution of an annual flowering plant population

Marjo Patama, Regina G. Belz, Aki Sinkkonen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

HHCB [1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta(g)-2-benzopyran] and 4-tert-octylphenol [4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol] are widely used emerging contaminants that have the potential to cause adverse effects in the environment. The purpose of this study was to observe if and how environmentally realistic concentrations of these contaminants alter growth in plant populations. It was hypothesized that within an exposed Gypsophila elegans Bieb (annual baby's breath) population especially fast-growing seedlings are impaired even when the population mean is unaffected, and small doses can cause hormesis and, thus, an increase in shoot or root length. In a dose-response experiment, an experimental population of G. elegans was established (total 15.600 seeds, 50 seeds per replicate, 24 replicates per concentration, 5.2 seedlings/cm(2)) and exposed to 12 doses of HHCB or 4-tert-octylphenol. After five days, shoot and root length values were measured and population averages, as well as slow- and fast-growing subpopulations, were compared with unexposed controls. Growth responses were predominantly monophasic. HHCB seemed to selectively inhibit both root and shoot elongation among slow- and fast-growing individuals, while 4-tert-octylphenol selectively inhibited both root and shoot elongation of mainly fast-growing seedlings. The ED50 values (dose causing 50% inhibition) revealed that the slow-growing seedlings were more sensitive and fast-growing seedlings less sensitive than the average of all individuals. Although there was toxicant specific variation between the effects, selective toxicity was consistently found among both slow- and fast-growing plants starting already at concentrations of 0.0067 mu M, that are usually considered to be harmless. This study indicates that these contaminants can change size distribution of a plant population at low concentrations in the nM/mu M range.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEcotoxicology
Volume28
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)732-743
Number of pages12
ISSN0963-9292
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • 1172 Environmental sciences
  • 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
  • Dose-response
  • Growth stimulation
  • Hormesis
  • Low toxin doses
  • Selective toxicity
  • SEWAGE-SLUDGE
  • CHEMICAL INTERFERENCE
  • RESOURCE COMPETITION
  • POLYCYCLIC MUSKS
  • COPPER-SULFATE
  • HORMESIS
  • GROWTH
  • STIMULATION
  • RESPONSES
  • WATER

Cite this

@article{681ff3a5f71448d6a6e4813d49c20bb4,
title = "Realistic low-doses of two emerging contaminants change size distribution of an annual flowering plant population",
abstract = "HHCB [1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta(g)-2-benzopyran] and 4-tert-octylphenol [4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol] are widely used emerging contaminants that have the potential to cause adverse effects in the environment. The purpose of this study was to observe if and how environmentally realistic concentrations of these contaminants alter growth in plant populations. It was hypothesized that within an exposed Gypsophila elegans Bieb (annual baby's breath) population especially fast-growing seedlings are impaired even when the population mean is unaffected, and small doses can cause hormesis and, thus, an increase in shoot or root length. In a dose-response experiment, an experimental population of G. elegans was established (total 15.600 seeds, 50 seeds per replicate, 24 replicates per concentration, 5.2 seedlings/cm(2)) and exposed to 12 doses of HHCB or 4-tert-octylphenol. After five days, shoot and root length values were measured and population averages, as well as slow- and fast-growing subpopulations, were compared with unexposed controls. Growth responses were predominantly monophasic. HHCB seemed to selectively inhibit both root and shoot elongation among slow- and fast-growing individuals, while 4-tert-octylphenol selectively inhibited both root and shoot elongation of mainly fast-growing seedlings. The ED50 values (dose causing 50{\%} inhibition) revealed that the slow-growing seedlings were more sensitive and fast-growing seedlings less sensitive than the average of all individuals. Although there was toxicant specific variation between the effects, selective toxicity was consistently found among both slow- and fast-growing plants starting already at concentrations of 0.0067 mu M, that are usually considered to be harmless. This study indicates that these contaminants can change size distribution of a plant population at low concentrations in the nM/mu M range.",
keywords = "1172 Environmental sciences, 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology, Dose-response, Growth stimulation, Hormesis, Low toxin doses, Selective toxicity, SEWAGE-SLUDGE, CHEMICAL INTERFERENCE, RESOURCE COMPETITION, POLYCYCLIC MUSKS, COPPER-SULFATE, HORMESIS, GROWTH, STIMULATION, RESPONSES, WATER, Dose-response, Growth stimulation, Hormesis, Low toxin doses, Selective toxicity, SEWAGE-SLUDGE, CHEMICAL INTERFERENCE, RESOURCE COMPETITION, POLYCYCLIC MUSKS, COPPER-SULFATE, HORMESIS, GROWTH, STIMULATION, RESPONSES, WATER",
author = "Marjo Patama and Belz, {Regina G.} and Aki Sinkkonen",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1007/s10646-019-02069-3",
language = "English",
volume = "28",
pages = "732--743",
journal = "Ecotoxicology",
issn = "0963-9292",
publisher = "Springer",
number = "7",

}

Realistic low-doses of two emerging contaminants change size distribution of an annual flowering plant population. / Patama, Marjo; Belz, Regina G.; Sinkkonen, Aki.

In: Ecotoxicology, Vol. 28, No. 7, 09.2019, p. 732-743.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Realistic low-doses of two emerging contaminants change size distribution of an annual flowering plant population

AU - Patama, Marjo

AU - Belz, Regina G.

AU - Sinkkonen, Aki

PY - 2019/9

Y1 - 2019/9

N2 - HHCB [1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta(g)-2-benzopyran] and 4-tert-octylphenol [4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol] are widely used emerging contaminants that have the potential to cause adverse effects in the environment. The purpose of this study was to observe if and how environmentally realistic concentrations of these contaminants alter growth in plant populations. It was hypothesized that within an exposed Gypsophila elegans Bieb (annual baby's breath) population especially fast-growing seedlings are impaired even when the population mean is unaffected, and small doses can cause hormesis and, thus, an increase in shoot or root length. In a dose-response experiment, an experimental population of G. elegans was established (total 15.600 seeds, 50 seeds per replicate, 24 replicates per concentration, 5.2 seedlings/cm(2)) and exposed to 12 doses of HHCB or 4-tert-octylphenol. After five days, shoot and root length values were measured and population averages, as well as slow- and fast-growing subpopulations, were compared with unexposed controls. Growth responses were predominantly monophasic. HHCB seemed to selectively inhibit both root and shoot elongation among slow- and fast-growing individuals, while 4-tert-octylphenol selectively inhibited both root and shoot elongation of mainly fast-growing seedlings. The ED50 values (dose causing 50% inhibition) revealed that the slow-growing seedlings were more sensitive and fast-growing seedlings less sensitive than the average of all individuals. Although there was toxicant specific variation between the effects, selective toxicity was consistently found among both slow- and fast-growing plants starting already at concentrations of 0.0067 mu M, that are usually considered to be harmless. This study indicates that these contaminants can change size distribution of a plant population at low concentrations in the nM/mu M range.

AB - HHCB [1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta(g)-2-benzopyran] and 4-tert-octylphenol [4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol] are widely used emerging contaminants that have the potential to cause adverse effects in the environment. The purpose of this study was to observe if and how environmentally realistic concentrations of these contaminants alter growth in plant populations. It was hypothesized that within an exposed Gypsophila elegans Bieb (annual baby's breath) population especially fast-growing seedlings are impaired even when the population mean is unaffected, and small doses can cause hormesis and, thus, an increase in shoot or root length. In a dose-response experiment, an experimental population of G. elegans was established (total 15.600 seeds, 50 seeds per replicate, 24 replicates per concentration, 5.2 seedlings/cm(2)) and exposed to 12 doses of HHCB or 4-tert-octylphenol. After five days, shoot and root length values were measured and population averages, as well as slow- and fast-growing subpopulations, were compared with unexposed controls. Growth responses were predominantly monophasic. HHCB seemed to selectively inhibit both root and shoot elongation among slow- and fast-growing individuals, while 4-tert-octylphenol selectively inhibited both root and shoot elongation of mainly fast-growing seedlings. The ED50 values (dose causing 50% inhibition) revealed that the slow-growing seedlings were more sensitive and fast-growing seedlings less sensitive than the average of all individuals. Although there was toxicant specific variation between the effects, selective toxicity was consistently found among both slow- and fast-growing plants starting already at concentrations of 0.0067 mu M, that are usually considered to be harmless. This study indicates that these contaminants can change size distribution of a plant population at low concentrations in the nM/mu M range.

KW - 1172 Environmental sciences

KW - 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology

KW - Dose-response

KW - Growth stimulation

KW - Hormesis

KW - Low toxin doses

KW - Selective toxicity

KW - SEWAGE-SLUDGE

KW - CHEMICAL INTERFERENCE

KW - RESOURCE COMPETITION

KW - POLYCYCLIC MUSKS

KW - COPPER-SULFATE

KW - HORMESIS

KW - GROWTH

KW - STIMULATION

KW - RESPONSES

KW - WATER

KW - Dose-response

KW - Growth stimulation

KW - Hormesis

KW - Low toxin doses

KW - Selective toxicity

KW - SEWAGE-SLUDGE

KW - CHEMICAL INTERFERENCE

KW - RESOURCE COMPETITION

KW - POLYCYCLIC MUSKS

KW - COPPER-SULFATE

KW - HORMESIS

KW - GROWTH

KW - STIMULATION

KW - RESPONSES

KW - WATER

U2 - 10.1007/s10646-019-02069-3

DO - 10.1007/s10646-019-02069-3

M3 - Article

VL - 28

SP - 732

EP - 743

JO - Ecotoxicology

JF - Ecotoxicology

SN - 0963-9292

IS - 7

ER -