Recurrent bacterial pneumonia in Irish Wolfhounds: Clinical findings and etiological studies

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Increased incidence of bacterial pneumonia (BP) has been reported in Irish Wolfhounds (IWHs), and recurrence of BP is common. The etiology of recurrent pneumonia in IWHs is largely unknown.

Objectives: To describe clinical findings in IWHs with recurrent BP and investigate possible etiologies.

Animals: Eleven affected IWHs, 25 healthy IWHs, 28 healthy dogs of other Sighthound breeds, and 16 healthy dogs of other breeds.

Methods: Prospective cross-sectional observational study. All affected IWHs underwent thorough clinical examinations including thoracic radiographs, thoracic computed tomography, electron microscopic evaluation of ciliary structure, and bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology and culture. Serum and BALF immunoglobulin concentrations were measured using an ELISA method, and peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed using flow cytometry. Esophageal function was assessed by fluoroscopy (n = 2).

Results: Median age of onset was 5.0 years (range, 0.4-6.5 years), and when presented for study, dogs had experienced a median of 5 previous episodes of BP (range, 2-6). The following predisposing factors to BP were detected: focal bronchiectasis (10/11), unilateral (2/9) and bilateral (1/9) laryngeal paralysis, and esophageal hypomotility (2/2). Local or systemic immunoglobulin deficiencies or primary ciliary defects were not detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Recurrent BP affects mostly middle-aged and older IWHs without any evident immune deficit or primary ciliary defects. Focal BE was a frequent finding in affected dogs and likely contributed to the development of recurrent respiratory infections. Laryngeal and esophageal dysfunction identified in a minority of dogs may contribute to recurrent BP.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume33
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)846-855
Number of pages10
ISSN1939-1676
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • canine
  • dog
  • pulmonary
  • respiratory infection
  • PRIMARY CILIARY DYSKINESIA
  • ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA
  • RISK-FACTORS
  • DOGS
  • PREVALENCE
  • DEFICIENCY
  • SERUM
  • SIZE
  • BRONCHIECTASIS
  • COMPLICATIONS
  • 413 Veterinary science

Cite this

@article{d1156f9a9428481190d2af34b09c25ad,
title = "Recurrent bacterial pneumonia in Irish Wolfhounds: Clinical findings and etiological studies",
abstract = "Background: Increased incidence of bacterial pneumonia (BP) has been reported in Irish Wolfhounds (IWHs), and recurrence of BP is common. The etiology of recurrent pneumonia in IWHs is largely unknown.Objectives: To describe clinical findings in IWHs with recurrent BP and investigate possible etiologies.Animals: Eleven affected IWHs, 25 healthy IWHs, 28 healthy dogs of other Sighthound breeds, and 16 healthy dogs of other breeds.Methods: Prospective cross-sectional observational study. All affected IWHs underwent thorough clinical examinations including thoracic radiographs, thoracic computed tomography, electron microscopic evaluation of ciliary structure, and bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology and culture. Serum and BALF immunoglobulin concentrations were measured using an ELISA method, and peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed using flow cytometry. Esophageal function was assessed by fluoroscopy (n = 2).Results: Median age of onset was 5.0 years (range, 0.4-6.5 years), and when presented for study, dogs had experienced a median of 5 previous episodes of BP (range, 2-6). The following predisposing factors to BP were detected: focal bronchiectasis (10/11), unilateral (2/9) and bilateral (1/9) laryngeal paralysis, and esophageal hypomotility (2/2). Local or systemic immunoglobulin deficiencies or primary ciliary defects were not detected.Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Recurrent BP affects mostly middle-aged and older IWHs without any evident immune deficit or primary ciliary defects. Focal BE was a frequent finding in affected dogs and likely contributed to the development of recurrent respiratory infections. Laryngeal and esophageal dysfunction identified in a minority of dogs may contribute to recurrent BP.",
keywords = "canine, dog, pulmonary, respiratory infection, PRIMARY CILIARY DYSKINESIA, ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA, RISK-FACTORS, DOGS, PREVALENCE, DEFICIENCY, SERUM, SIZE, BRONCHIECTASIS, COMPLICATIONS, 413 Veterinary science",
author = "Viitanen, {Sanna Johanna} and Lappalainen, {Anu Katriina} and Koho, {Ninna Maaria} and Pessa-Morikawa, {Tiina Inkeri} and Lorenzo Ressel and Minna Rajam{\"a}ki",
year = "2019",
month = "3",
doi = "10.1111/jvim.15413",
language = "English",
volume = "33",
pages = "846--855",
journal = "Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine",
issn = "0891-6640",
publisher = "Wiley",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Recurrent bacterial pneumonia in Irish Wolfhounds: Clinical findings and etiological studies

AU - Viitanen, Sanna Johanna

AU - Lappalainen, Anu Katriina

AU - Koho, Ninna Maaria

AU - Pessa-Morikawa, Tiina Inkeri

AU - Ressel, Lorenzo

AU - Rajamäki, Minna

PY - 2019/3

Y1 - 2019/3

N2 - Background: Increased incidence of bacterial pneumonia (BP) has been reported in Irish Wolfhounds (IWHs), and recurrence of BP is common. The etiology of recurrent pneumonia in IWHs is largely unknown.Objectives: To describe clinical findings in IWHs with recurrent BP and investigate possible etiologies.Animals: Eleven affected IWHs, 25 healthy IWHs, 28 healthy dogs of other Sighthound breeds, and 16 healthy dogs of other breeds.Methods: Prospective cross-sectional observational study. All affected IWHs underwent thorough clinical examinations including thoracic radiographs, thoracic computed tomography, electron microscopic evaluation of ciliary structure, and bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology and culture. Serum and BALF immunoglobulin concentrations were measured using an ELISA method, and peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed using flow cytometry. Esophageal function was assessed by fluoroscopy (n = 2).Results: Median age of onset was 5.0 years (range, 0.4-6.5 years), and when presented for study, dogs had experienced a median of 5 previous episodes of BP (range, 2-6). The following predisposing factors to BP were detected: focal bronchiectasis (10/11), unilateral (2/9) and bilateral (1/9) laryngeal paralysis, and esophageal hypomotility (2/2). Local or systemic immunoglobulin deficiencies or primary ciliary defects were not detected.Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Recurrent BP affects mostly middle-aged and older IWHs without any evident immune deficit or primary ciliary defects. Focal BE was a frequent finding in affected dogs and likely contributed to the development of recurrent respiratory infections. Laryngeal and esophageal dysfunction identified in a minority of dogs may contribute to recurrent BP.

AB - Background: Increased incidence of bacterial pneumonia (BP) has been reported in Irish Wolfhounds (IWHs), and recurrence of BP is common. The etiology of recurrent pneumonia in IWHs is largely unknown.Objectives: To describe clinical findings in IWHs with recurrent BP and investigate possible etiologies.Animals: Eleven affected IWHs, 25 healthy IWHs, 28 healthy dogs of other Sighthound breeds, and 16 healthy dogs of other breeds.Methods: Prospective cross-sectional observational study. All affected IWHs underwent thorough clinical examinations including thoracic radiographs, thoracic computed tomography, electron microscopic evaluation of ciliary structure, and bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology and culture. Serum and BALF immunoglobulin concentrations were measured using an ELISA method, and peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed using flow cytometry. Esophageal function was assessed by fluoroscopy (n = 2).Results: Median age of onset was 5.0 years (range, 0.4-6.5 years), and when presented for study, dogs had experienced a median of 5 previous episodes of BP (range, 2-6). The following predisposing factors to BP were detected: focal bronchiectasis (10/11), unilateral (2/9) and bilateral (1/9) laryngeal paralysis, and esophageal hypomotility (2/2). Local or systemic immunoglobulin deficiencies or primary ciliary defects were not detected.Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Recurrent BP affects mostly middle-aged and older IWHs without any evident immune deficit or primary ciliary defects. Focal BE was a frequent finding in affected dogs and likely contributed to the development of recurrent respiratory infections. Laryngeal and esophageal dysfunction identified in a minority of dogs may contribute to recurrent BP.

KW - canine

KW - dog

KW - pulmonary

KW - respiratory infection

KW - PRIMARY CILIARY DYSKINESIA

KW - ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA

KW - RISK-FACTORS

KW - DOGS

KW - PREVALENCE

KW - DEFICIENCY

KW - SERUM

KW - SIZE

KW - BRONCHIECTASIS

KW - COMPLICATIONS

KW - 413 Veterinary science

U2 - 10.1111/jvim.15413

DO - 10.1111/jvim.15413

M3 - Article

VL - 33

SP - 846

EP - 855

JO - Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

JF - Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

SN - 0891-6640

IS - 2

ER -