Salivary IgG levels in neonatal calves and its association to serum IgG: An observational pilot study

Julie Føske Johnsen, Matteo Chincarini, Åse Margrethe Sogstad, Liv Sølverød, Marie Vatne, Cecilie Marie Mejdell, Laura Talvikki Hänninen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

The diagnosis of inadequate transfer of colostrum Immunoglobulin G (IgG) to calf serum, often known as failure of passive transfer (< 10 g/L IgG1 at 24-48 h), necessitates blood sampling from the calf and in some instances the presence of a veterinarian. Sampling saliva is both less invasive and easy for the producer. Previous research has shown that quantification of saliva IgG is possible in juvenile and adult cattle. The objectives of this observational pilot study were to investigate whether IgG can be quantified in neonatal calf saliva, if it is correlated to serum IgG concentrations, and if the indirect quantification of saliva IgG is achievable by use of a digital refractometer. Paired blood and saliva samples were collected from 20 healthy dairy calves aged 1-3 d. In these samples, IgG was quantified directly with Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID) and indirectly by use of a digital refractometer indicating Brix % (a subsample of n=12 saliva samples). A strong positive correlation (r = 0.7, P<0.001) between saliva IgG (mean ± SD; 0.2 ± 0.11 g/L) and serum IgG (32.1 ± 11.94 g/L) was found. Saliva IgG ranged from the lowest detectable value, 0.1 g/L (n = 6 samples), to 0.6 g/L. Saliva Brix (1.2 ± 0.69%) was not significantly correlated to serum IgG (n = 12, r = 0.43, P = 0.155), however it was significantly correlated to saliva IgG (n = 12, r = 0.7, P = 0.018) and Brix in serum (n = 12, r = 0.7, P = 0.013). We conclude that IgG was quantifiable in most of the saliva samples. For saliva IgG to be of any value with regards to detecting failure of passive transfer, future studies should investigate methods that can detect IgG <0.1 g/L. The results indicate that saliva IgG can be used to predict serum IgG at levels above 10g/L, which may warrant further exploration of the use of saliva in the surveillance of failure of passive transfer. The results of the current pilot study did not support the potential usage of a Brix % refractometer to quantify saliva IgG.
Original languageEnglish
JournalTranslational animal science
Volume3
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)589-593
Number of pages5
ISSN2573-2102
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jan 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • 413 Veterinary science
  • calf
  • IMMUNOGLOBULIN
  • colostrum
  • saliva

Cite this

Føske Johnsen, J., Chincarini, M., Sogstad, Å. M., Sølverød, L., Vatne, M., Mejdell, C. M., & Hänninen, L. T. (2019). Salivary IgG levels in neonatal calves and its association to serum IgG: An observational pilot study. Translational animal science, 3(1), 589-593. https://doi.org/10.1093/tas/txz001
Føske Johnsen, Julie ; Chincarini, Matteo ; Sogstad, Åse Margrethe ; Sølverød, Liv ; Vatne, Marie ; Mejdell, Cecilie Marie ; Hänninen, Laura Talvikki. / Salivary IgG levels in neonatal calves and its association to serum IgG : An observational pilot study. In: Translational animal science. 2019 ; Vol. 3, No. 1. pp. 589-593.
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abstract = "The diagnosis of inadequate transfer of colostrum Immunoglobulin G (IgG) to calf serum, often known as failure of passive transfer (< 10 g/L IgG1 at 24-48 h), necessitates blood sampling from the calf and in some instances the presence of a veterinarian. Sampling saliva is both less invasive and easy for the producer. Previous research has shown that quantification of saliva IgG is possible in juvenile and adult cattle. The objectives of this observational pilot study were to investigate whether IgG can be quantified in neonatal calf saliva, if it is correlated to serum IgG concentrations, and if the indirect quantification of saliva IgG is achievable by use of a digital refractometer. Paired blood and saliva samples were collected from 20 healthy dairy calves aged 1-3 d. In these samples, IgG was quantified directly with Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID) and indirectly by use of a digital refractometer indicating Brix {\%} (a subsample of n=12 saliva samples). A strong positive correlation (r = 0.7, P<0.001) between saliva IgG (mean ± SD; 0.2 ± 0.11 g/L) and serum IgG (32.1 ± 11.94 g/L) was found. Saliva IgG ranged from the lowest detectable value, 0.1 g/L (n = 6 samples), to 0.6 g/L. Saliva Brix (1.2 ± 0.69{\%}) was not significantly correlated to serum IgG (n = 12, r = 0.43, P = 0.155), however it was significantly correlated to saliva IgG (n = 12, r = 0.7, P = 0.018) and Brix in serum (n = 12, r = 0.7, P = 0.013). We conclude that IgG was quantifiable in most of the saliva samples. For saliva IgG to be of any value with regards to detecting failure of passive transfer, future studies should investigate methods that can detect IgG <0.1 g/L. The results indicate that saliva IgG can be used to predict serum IgG at levels above 10g/L, which may warrant further exploration of the use of saliva in the surveillance of failure of passive transfer. The results of the current pilot study did not support the potential usage of a Brix {\%} refractometer to quantify saliva IgG.",
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Føske Johnsen, J, Chincarini, M, Sogstad, ÅM, Sølverød, L, Vatne, M, Mejdell, CM & Hänninen, LT 2019, 'Salivary IgG levels in neonatal calves and its association to serum IgG: An observational pilot study' Translational animal science, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 589-593. https://doi.org/10.1093/tas/txz001

Salivary IgG levels in neonatal calves and its association to serum IgG : An observational pilot study. / Føske Johnsen, Julie; Chincarini, Matteo; Sogstad, Åse Margrethe; Sølverød, Liv; Vatne, Marie; Mejdell, Cecilie Marie; Hänninen, Laura Talvikki.

In: Translational animal science, Vol. 3, No. 1, 21.01.2019, p. 589-593.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Salivary IgG levels in neonatal calves and its association to serum IgG

T2 - An observational pilot study

AU - Føske Johnsen, Julie

AU - Chincarini, Matteo

AU - Sogstad, Åse Margrethe

AU - Sølverød, Liv

AU - Vatne, Marie

AU - Mejdell, Cecilie Marie

AU - Hänninen, Laura Talvikki

PY - 2019/1/21

Y1 - 2019/1/21

N2 - The diagnosis of inadequate transfer of colostrum Immunoglobulin G (IgG) to calf serum, often known as failure of passive transfer (< 10 g/L IgG1 at 24-48 h), necessitates blood sampling from the calf and in some instances the presence of a veterinarian. Sampling saliva is both less invasive and easy for the producer. Previous research has shown that quantification of saliva IgG is possible in juvenile and adult cattle. The objectives of this observational pilot study were to investigate whether IgG can be quantified in neonatal calf saliva, if it is correlated to serum IgG concentrations, and if the indirect quantification of saliva IgG is achievable by use of a digital refractometer. Paired blood and saliva samples were collected from 20 healthy dairy calves aged 1-3 d. In these samples, IgG was quantified directly with Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID) and indirectly by use of a digital refractometer indicating Brix % (a subsample of n=12 saliva samples). A strong positive correlation (r = 0.7, P<0.001) between saliva IgG (mean ± SD; 0.2 ± 0.11 g/L) and serum IgG (32.1 ± 11.94 g/L) was found. Saliva IgG ranged from the lowest detectable value, 0.1 g/L (n = 6 samples), to 0.6 g/L. Saliva Brix (1.2 ± 0.69%) was not significantly correlated to serum IgG (n = 12, r = 0.43, P = 0.155), however it was significantly correlated to saliva IgG (n = 12, r = 0.7, P = 0.018) and Brix in serum (n = 12, r = 0.7, P = 0.013). We conclude that IgG was quantifiable in most of the saliva samples. For saliva IgG to be of any value with regards to detecting failure of passive transfer, future studies should investigate methods that can detect IgG <0.1 g/L. The results indicate that saliva IgG can be used to predict serum IgG at levels above 10g/L, which may warrant further exploration of the use of saliva in the surveillance of failure of passive transfer. The results of the current pilot study did not support the potential usage of a Brix % refractometer to quantify saliva IgG.

AB - The diagnosis of inadequate transfer of colostrum Immunoglobulin G (IgG) to calf serum, often known as failure of passive transfer (< 10 g/L IgG1 at 24-48 h), necessitates blood sampling from the calf and in some instances the presence of a veterinarian. Sampling saliva is both less invasive and easy for the producer. Previous research has shown that quantification of saliva IgG is possible in juvenile and adult cattle. The objectives of this observational pilot study were to investigate whether IgG can be quantified in neonatal calf saliva, if it is correlated to serum IgG concentrations, and if the indirect quantification of saliva IgG is achievable by use of a digital refractometer. Paired blood and saliva samples were collected from 20 healthy dairy calves aged 1-3 d. In these samples, IgG was quantified directly with Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID) and indirectly by use of a digital refractometer indicating Brix % (a subsample of n=12 saliva samples). A strong positive correlation (r = 0.7, P<0.001) between saliva IgG (mean ± SD; 0.2 ± 0.11 g/L) and serum IgG (32.1 ± 11.94 g/L) was found. Saliva IgG ranged from the lowest detectable value, 0.1 g/L (n = 6 samples), to 0.6 g/L. Saliva Brix (1.2 ± 0.69%) was not significantly correlated to serum IgG (n = 12, r = 0.43, P = 0.155), however it was significantly correlated to saliva IgG (n = 12, r = 0.7, P = 0.018) and Brix in serum (n = 12, r = 0.7, P = 0.013). We conclude that IgG was quantifiable in most of the saliva samples. For saliva IgG to be of any value with regards to detecting failure of passive transfer, future studies should investigate methods that can detect IgG <0.1 g/L. The results indicate that saliva IgG can be used to predict serum IgG at levels above 10g/L, which may warrant further exploration of the use of saliva in the surveillance of failure of passive transfer. The results of the current pilot study did not support the potential usage of a Brix % refractometer to quantify saliva IgG.

KW - 413 Veterinary science

KW - calf

KW - IMMUNOGLOBULIN

KW - colostrum

KW - saliva

U2 - 10.1093/tas/txz001

DO - 10.1093/tas/txz001

M3 - Article

VL - 3

SP - 589

EP - 593

JO - Translational animal science

JF - Translational animal science

SN - 2573-2102

IS - 1

ER -

Føske Johnsen J, Chincarini M, Sogstad ÅM, Sølverød L, Vatne M, Mejdell CM et al. Salivary IgG levels in neonatal calves and its association to serum IgG: An observational pilot study. Translational animal science. 2019 Jan 21;3(1):589-593. https://doi.org/10.1093/tas/txz001