Targets of Online Hate: Examining Determinants of Victimization Among Young Finnish Facebook Users

Pekka Räsänen, James Hawdon, Emma Holkeri, Teo Keipi, Matti Näsi, Atte Oksanen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Drawing from routine activity theory (RAT), this article seeks to determine the crucial factors contributing to youth victimization through online hate. Although numerous studies have supported RAT in an online context, research focusing on users of particular forms of social media is lacking. Using a sample of 15- to 18-year-old Finnish Facebook users (n = 723), we examine whether the risk of online hate victimization is more likely when youth themselves produced online hate material, visited online sites containing potentially harmful content, and deliberately sought out online hate material. In addition, we examine whether the risk of victimization is higher if respondents are worried about online victimization and had been personally victimized offline. The discussion highlights the accumulation of online and offline victimization, the ambiguity of the roles of victims and perpetrators, and the artificiality of the division between the online and offline environments among young people.
Original languageEnglish
JournalViolence and Victims
Volume31
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)708-725
Number of pages18
ISSN0886-6708
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • 5141 Sociology
  • social media
  • routine activity theory
  • victimization
  • online hate
  • LIFE-STYLE
  • INTERNET
  • YOUTH
  • EXPOSURE
  • CRIME
  • VIOLENCE
  • SUICIDE
  • TRENDS

Cite this

Räsänen, Pekka ; Hawdon, James ; Holkeri, Emma ; Keipi, Teo ; Näsi, Matti ; Oksanen, Atte. / Targets of Online Hate : Examining Determinants of Victimization Among Young Finnish Facebook Users. In: Violence and Victims. 2016 ; Vol. 31, No. 4. pp. 708-725.
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abstract = "Drawing from routine activity theory (RAT), this article seeks to determine the crucial factors contributing to youth victimization through online hate. Although numerous studies have supported RAT in an online context, research focusing on users of particular forms of social media is lacking. Using a sample of 15- to 18-year-old Finnish Facebook users (n = 723), we examine whether the risk of online hate victimization is more likely when youth themselves produced online hate material, visited online sites containing potentially harmful content, and deliberately sought out online hate material. In addition, we examine whether the risk of victimization is higher if respondents are worried about online victimization and had been personally victimized offline. The discussion highlights the accumulation of online and offline victimization, the ambiguity of the roles of victims and perpetrators, and the artificiality of the division between the online and offline environments among young people.",
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Targets of Online Hate : Examining Determinants of Victimization Among Young Finnish Facebook Users. / Räsänen, Pekka; Hawdon, James; Holkeri, Emma; Keipi, Teo; Näsi, Matti; Oksanen, Atte.

In: Violence and Victims, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2016, p. 708-725.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Targets of Online Hate

T2 - Examining Determinants of Victimization Among Young Finnish Facebook Users

AU - Räsänen, Pekka

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AU - Holkeri, Emma

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AU - Näsi, Matti

AU - Oksanen, Atte

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AB - Drawing from routine activity theory (RAT), this article seeks to determine the crucial factors contributing to youth victimization through online hate. Although numerous studies have supported RAT in an online context, research focusing on users of particular forms of social media is lacking. Using a sample of 15- to 18-year-old Finnish Facebook users (n = 723), we examine whether the risk of online hate victimization is more likely when youth themselves produced online hate material, visited online sites containing potentially harmful content, and deliberately sought out online hate material. In addition, we examine whether the risk of victimization is higher if respondents are worried about online victimization and had been personally victimized offline. The discussion highlights the accumulation of online and offline victimization, the ambiguity of the roles of victims and perpetrators, and the artificiality of the division between the online and offline environments among young people.

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KW - social media

KW - routine activity theory

KW - victimization

KW - online hate

KW - LIFE-STYLE

KW - INTERNET

KW - YOUTH

KW - EXPOSURE

KW - CRIME

KW - VIOLENCE

KW - SUICIDE

KW - TRENDS

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