The effect of digital tools on visual attention during problem solving: Variance of gaze fixations when working with GeoGebra or on paper

Markku S. Hannula, Miika Toivanen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review


Research on reading indicates that visual attention is different when using digital media or print. This study aims to explore whether the choice between paper and GeoGebra influences visual attention during collaborative geometry problem solving. We measured eight students’ fixation durations during different lesson phases: teacher instruction, individual work, pair work, group work, students presenting on the board, and whole class discussion. During all phases except teacher instruction we observed a difference in the fixation distributions as indicated by Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. The use of GeoGebra is related to a slight shift from median length fixations to short fixations, suggesting lower cognitive load when students work with computers.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the Eleventh Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education (CERME11, February 6 – 10, 2019)
EditorsUffe Thoma Jankvist, Marja Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Michiel Veldhuis
Number of pages8
Place of PublicationUtrechet, the Netherlands
PublisherFreudenthal Group & Freudenthal Institute, Utrecht University
Publication date2019
ISBN (Electronic)978-90-73346-75-8
Publication statusPublished - 2019
MoE publication typeA4 Article in conference proceedings
EventCERME 11 - The Eleventh Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education - University of Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
Duration: 6 Feb 201910 Feb 2019

Fields of Science

  • 516 Educational sciences

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