The Paper Industry in Germany, 1800-2000

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Germany is the biggest paper exporter in the world, the biggest paper producer in Europe and the fourth biggest producer in the world. It is also the biggest market in Europe and a major export market for European pulp producers. However, only three German pulp and paper companies made it to the top 100 list of the industry in 2010 and none made it into the top 50 (PPI 2011). This article describes the development of the German industry from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the present in order to explain the factors contributing to this unusual state of affairs in a country which, during the second Industrial Revolution, created major players in the new global oligopolies in chemicals, machinery and metals. In many lighter industries, such as paper, the focus remained on domestic markets, or foreign companies came to dominate the industry. To cover the development of the industry, the chapter relies on existing research and statistical sources to describe changes in production, trade, raw materials and technology; changes in firms and industry structure, and changes in regulation. The article also discusses government policies, major historical events and their effects.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Evolution of Global Paper Industry 1800¬–2050 : A Comparative Analysis
EditorsJuha-Antti Lamberg, Jari Ojala, Mirva Peltoniemi, Timo Särkkä
Number of pages19
Place of PublicationDordrecht
Publication date2012
ISBN (Print)978-94-007-5430-0
ISBN (Electronic)978-94-007-5431-7
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes
MoE publication typeA3 Book chapter

Publication series

NameWorld Forests
ISSN (Print)1566-0427
ISSN (Electronic)1566-0427

Fields of Science

  • 5202 Economic and Social History

Cite this

Turunen, O. (2012). The Paper Industry in Germany, 1800-2000. In J-A. Lamberg, J. Ojala, M. Peltoniemi, & T. Särkkä (Eds.), The Evolution of Global Paper Industry 1800¬–2050: A Comparative Analysis (pp. 81-99). (World Forests; Vol. 17). Dordrecht: Springer.