Tracing pollution and recovery using sediments in an urban estuary, northern Baltic Sea: are we far from ecological reference conditions?

Pirkko Kauppila, Kaarina Weckström, Sanna Vaalgamaa, Atte Korhola, Heikki Pitkänen, Nina Reuss, Simon Drew

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

"One of the primary challenges of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union is to provide a guide for the recovery of surface waters from pollution. However, few studies deal with reference conditions according to the WFD in coastal waters. Using the urbanised Laajalahti Bay (Helsinki, Finland) as an example, reference conditions and pollution history were defined using the stratigraphy of diatoms, sediment geochemistry, stable isotopes, sedimentary pigments, long-term monitoring results of water quality, and nutrient-loading. Principal components analysis was used to generate a multidimensional index of water quality on the basis of the sediment data. We distinguished 5 phases: (1) a pre-industrial phase (before ca. 1815); (2) a phase of slight hum-in disturbance (ca. 1815 to 1900); (3) an onset of anthropogenic impact (ca. 1900 to 1955); (4) a severe pollution phase (ca. 1955 to 1975); (5) basin recovery and a phase of internal loading (from ca. 1975 onwards). Phase 2 was used to define reference conditions. Phase 1 was not used as it occurred before the formation of the semi-enclosed bay by post-glacial isostatic land-uplift. There was good agreement between the sedimentary record and the water-quality data during Phase 4. Despite an improvement in water quality after the local municipal treatment plant closed in 1986, Laajalahti Bay is still far from reference conditions due to internal loading."
Original languageEnglish
JournalMarine Ecology. Progress Series
Volume290
Pages (from-to)35-53
Number of pages19
ISSN0171-8630
Publication statusPublished - 2005
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Cite this

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title = "Tracing pollution and recovery using sediments in an urban estuary, northern Baltic Sea: are we far from ecological reference conditions?",
abstract = "{"}One of the primary challenges of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union is to provide a guide for the recovery of surface waters from pollution. However, few studies deal with reference conditions according to the WFD in coastal waters. Using the urbanised Laajalahti Bay (Helsinki, Finland) as an example, reference conditions and pollution history were defined using the stratigraphy of diatoms, sediment geochemistry, stable isotopes, sedimentary pigments, long-term monitoring results of water quality, and nutrient-loading. Principal components analysis was used to generate a multidimensional index of water quality on the basis of the sediment data. We distinguished 5 phases: (1) a pre-industrial phase (before ca. 1815); (2) a phase of slight hum-in disturbance (ca. 1815 to 1900); (3) an onset of anthropogenic impact (ca. 1900 to 1955); (4) a severe pollution phase (ca. 1955 to 1975); (5) basin recovery and a phase of internal loading (from ca. 1975 onwards). Phase 2 was used to define reference conditions. Phase 1 was not used as it occurred before the formation of the semi-enclosed bay by post-glacial isostatic land-uplift. There was good agreement between the sedimentary record and the water-quality data during Phase 4. Despite an improvement in water quality after the local municipal treatment plant closed in 1986, Laajalahti Bay is still far from reference conditions due to internal loading.{"}",
author = "Pirkko Kauppila and Kaarina Weckstr{\"o}m and Sanna Vaalgamaa and Atte Korhola and Heikki Pitk{\"a}nen and Nina Reuss and Simon Drew",
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issn = "0171-8630",
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Tracing pollution and recovery using sediments in an urban estuary, northern Baltic Sea: are we far from ecological reference conditions? / Kauppila, Pirkko; Weckström, Kaarina; Vaalgamaa, Sanna; Korhola, Atte; Pitkänen, Heikki; Reuss, Nina; Drew, Simon.

In: Marine Ecology. Progress Series, Vol. 290, 2005, p. 35-53.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Tracing pollution and recovery using sediments in an urban estuary, northern Baltic Sea: are we far from ecological reference conditions?

AU - Kauppila, Pirkko

AU - Weckström, Kaarina

AU - Vaalgamaa, Sanna

AU - Korhola, Atte

AU - Pitkänen, Heikki

AU - Reuss, Nina

AU - Drew, Simon

PY - 2005

Y1 - 2005

N2 - "One of the primary challenges of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union is to provide a guide for the recovery of surface waters from pollution. However, few studies deal with reference conditions according to the WFD in coastal waters. Using the urbanised Laajalahti Bay (Helsinki, Finland) as an example, reference conditions and pollution history were defined using the stratigraphy of diatoms, sediment geochemistry, stable isotopes, sedimentary pigments, long-term monitoring results of water quality, and nutrient-loading. Principal components analysis was used to generate a multidimensional index of water quality on the basis of the sediment data. We distinguished 5 phases: (1) a pre-industrial phase (before ca. 1815); (2) a phase of slight hum-in disturbance (ca. 1815 to 1900); (3) an onset of anthropogenic impact (ca. 1900 to 1955); (4) a severe pollution phase (ca. 1955 to 1975); (5) basin recovery and a phase of internal loading (from ca. 1975 onwards). Phase 2 was used to define reference conditions. Phase 1 was not used as it occurred before the formation of the semi-enclosed bay by post-glacial isostatic land-uplift. There was good agreement between the sedimentary record and the water-quality data during Phase 4. Despite an improvement in water quality after the local municipal treatment plant closed in 1986, Laajalahti Bay is still far from reference conditions due to internal loading."

AB - "One of the primary challenges of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union is to provide a guide for the recovery of surface waters from pollution. However, few studies deal with reference conditions according to the WFD in coastal waters. Using the urbanised Laajalahti Bay (Helsinki, Finland) as an example, reference conditions and pollution history were defined using the stratigraphy of diatoms, sediment geochemistry, stable isotopes, sedimentary pigments, long-term monitoring results of water quality, and nutrient-loading. Principal components analysis was used to generate a multidimensional index of water quality on the basis of the sediment data. We distinguished 5 phases: (1) a pre-industrial phase (before ca. 1815); (2) a phase of slight hum-in disturbance (ca. 1815 to 1900); (3) an onset of anthropogenic impact (ca. 1900 to 1955); (4) a severe pollution phase (ca. 1955 to 1975); (5) basin recovery and a phase of internal loading (from ca. 1975 onwards). Phase 2 was used to define reference conditions. Phase 1 was not used as it occurred before the formation of the semi-enclosed bay by post-glacial isostatic land-uplift. There was good agreement between the sedimentary record and the water-quality data during Phase 4. Despite an improvement in water quality after the local municipal treatment plant closed in 1986, Laajalahti Bay is still far from reference conditions due to internal loading."

M3 - Article

VL - 290

SP - 35

EP - 53

JO - Marine Ecology. Progress Series

JF - Marine Ecology. Progress Series

SN - 0171-8630

ER -