Ultrasound-based surface sampling in immersion for mass spectrometry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


We present a surface sampling method for the chemical analysis of liquid-immersed solid samples. Liquid immersion allows samples to be kept in a hydrated state. We employed cavitation generated by high-intensity focused ultrasound for localized material removal. The appropriate transducer–sample distance was determined using the actuating ultrasound transducer prior to sampling, allowing sonication in focus despite surface height variation. We demonstrate the proposed surface sampling method on water-submerged glass cover slides painted with permanent markers, achieving sampling with tunable spot size down to 500  μm. The removed and collected material was transferred for chemical analysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, which showed mass peaks characteristic to the permanent markers.
Original languageEnglish
Article number104901
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number10
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 14 Sep 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • 114 Physical sciences
  • Electrospray-ionization
  • Atmospheric-pressure
  • Liquid extraction
  • Cavitation
  • Chromatography
  • Sediment
  • Clouds
  • Tissue

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