University and the contingencies in politics of research, development and innovations: Finnish reform of doctoral schools and doctoral programs

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterScientificpeer-review


Plurality of public interests on differentiation of science policy has brought forth a policy combination Research-Development-Innovation (R-D-I). This has been legitimized in politics of OECD and EU member states and it creates expectations also for doctoral education. The chapter suggest conceptualizing the policy compound (R-D-I) in systems theoretical terms as a contingency formula (Luhmann). This helps understanding certain structural features and the dynamics of the changes in form of doctoral schools with variety of programs crossing faculty and department boarders in Finland.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEpistemic and learning cultures: wohin sich Universitäten entwickeln
EditorsInes Langemeyer, Martin Fischer, Michaela Pfadenhauer
Number of pages23
Place of PublicationWeinheim, Bergstr
PublisherVerlagsgruppe Beltz
Publication date2015
ISBN (Print)978-3-7799-3277-2
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA3 Book chapter

Fields of Science

  • 5141 Sociology
  • contingency formulas
  • Luhmann
  • doctoral education

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