Vegetables cultivated with exposure to pure and naturally occurring β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) via irrigation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a potent neurotoxin, has been demonstrated in various food webs. It is alarming as this intensification of BMAA will result in exposure to higher concentrations from a direct cyanobacterial source. As more food items are being identified as a source of BMAA and with the large variations in BMAA content, the aim of the present study was to evaluate BMAA uptake by, and accumulation in, two commonly consumed vegetables, Lactuca sativa and Allium fistulosum. Plants exposed to pure BMAA in controlled laboratory experiments, as well as vegetables naturally irrigated with water containing a BMAA producing cyanobacterial bloom were evaluated during growth and ripening. In the laboratory exposures, free BMAA was detected in both the edible ripe parts of L. sativa and A. fistulosum after 60 days of exposure to a total of 4.5 µg BMAA. However, in the bloom exposure samples no BMAA could be detected in the ripe vegetables of A. fistulosum, Cucurbita pepo, or Brassica rapa chinensis. The study emphasises the need to further screen items for BMAA to understand the human exposure risk as well as the difference between BMAA uptake patterns with free BMAA and that contained in cyanobacterial cells.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume169
Pages (from-to)357-361
Number of pages5
ISSN0013-9351
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fields of Science

  • beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine
  • BMAA
  • Bioaccumulation
  • Cyanobacteria
  • Plant uptake
  • CYANOBACTERIAL TOXINS
  • LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY
  • CHAMORRO PEOPLE
  • FRESH-WATER
  • AMINO-ACID
  • 1172 Environmental sciences

Cite this

@article{2612fec43a7248a0a5f49259ac8f7936,
title = "Vegetables cultivated with exposure to pure and naturally occurring β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) via irrigation",
abstract = "Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a potent neurotoxin, has been demonstrated in various food webs. It is alarming as this intensification of BMAA will result in exposure to higher concentrations from a direct cyanobacterial source. As more food items are being identified as a source of BMAA and with the large variations in BMAA content, the aim of the present study was to evaluate BMAA uptake by, and accumulation in, two commonly consumed vegetables, Lactuca sativa and Allium fistulosum. Plants exposed to pure BMAA in controlled laboratory experiments, as well as vegetables naturally irrigated with water containing a BMAA producing cyanobacterial bloom were evaluated during growth and ripening. In the laboratory exposures, free BMAA was detected in both the edible ripe parts of L. sativa and A. fistulosum after 60 days of exposure to a total of 4.5 µg BMAA. However, in the bloom exposure samples no BMAA could be detected in the ripe vegetables of A. fistulosum, Cucurbita pepo, or Brassica rapa chinensis. The study emphasises the need to further screen items for BMAA to understand the human exposure risk as well as the difference between BMAA uptake patterns with free BMAA and that contained in cyanobacterial cells.",
keywords = "beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine, BMAA, Bioaccumulation, Cyanobacteria, Plant uptake, CYANOBACTERIAL TOXINS, LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY, CHAMORRO PEOPLE, FRESH-WATER, AMINO-ACID, 1172 Environmental sciences",
author = "Maranda Esterhuizen-Londt and Stephan Pflugmacher",
year = "2019",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1016/j.envres.2018.11.030",
language = "English",
volume = "169",
pages = "357--361",
journal = "Environmental Research",
issn = "0013-9351",
publisher = "ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Vegetables cultivated with exposure to pure and naturally occurring β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) via irrigation

AU - Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda

AU - Pflugmacher, Stephan

PY - 2019/2

Y1 - 2019/2

N2 - Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a potent neurotoxin, has been demonstrated in various food webs. It is alarming as this intensification of BMAA will result in exposure to higher concentrations from a direct cyanobacterial source. As more food items are being identified as a source of BMAA and with the large variations in BMAA content, the aim of the present study was to evaluate BMAA uptake by, and accumulation in, two commonly consumed vegetables, Lactuca sativa and Allium fistulosum. Plants exposed to pure BMAA in controlled laboratory experiments, as well as vegetables naturally irrigated with water containing a BMAA producing cyanobacterial bloom were evaluated during growth and ripening. In the laboratory exposures, free BMAA was detected in both the edible ripe parts of L. sativa and A. fistulosum after 60 days of exposure to a total of 4.5 µg BMAA. However, in the bloom exposure samples no BMAA could be detected in the ripe vegetables of A. fistulosum, Cucurbita pepo, or Brassica rapa chinensis. The study emphasises the need to further screen items for BMAA to understand the human exposure risk as well as the difference between BMAA uptake patterns with free BMAA and that contained in cyanobacterial cells.

AB - Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a potent neurotoxin, has been demonstrated in various food webs. It is alarming as this intensification of BMAA will result in exposure to higher concentrations from a direct cyanobacterial source. As more food items are being identified as a source of BMAA and with the large variations in BMAA content, the aim of the present study was to evaluate BMAA uptake by, and accumulation in, two commonly consumed vegetables, Lactuca sativa and Allium fistulosum. Plants exposed to pure BMAA in controlled laboratory experiments, as well as vegetables naturally irrigated with water containing a BMAA producing cyanobacterial bloom were evaluated during growth and ripening. In the laboratory exposures, free BMAA was detected in both the edible ripe parts of L. sativa and A. fistulosum after 60 days of exposure to a total of 4.5 µg BMAA. However, in the bloom exposure samples no BMAA could be detected in the ripe vegetables of A. fistulosum, Cucurbita pepo, or Brassica rapa chinensis. The study emphasises the need to further screen items for BMAA to understand the human exposure risk as well as the difference between BMAA uptake patterns with free BMAA and that contained in cyanobacterial cells.

KW - beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine

KW - BMAA

KW - Bioaccumulation

KW - Cyanobacteria

KW - Plant uptake

KW - CYANOBACTERIAL TOXINS

KW - LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY

KW - CHAMORRO PEOPLE

KW - FRESH-WATER

KW - AMINO-ACID

KW - 1172 Environmental sciences

U2 - 10.1016/j.envres.2018.11.030

DO - 10.1016/j.envres.2018.11.030

M3 - Article

VL - 169

SP - 357

EP - 361

JO - Environmental Research

JF - Environmental Research

SN - 0013-9351

ER -