Working memory related brain activity and networks in typically developing children and young adults

Ping Jiang

Research output: ThesisDoctoral ThesisCollection of Articles

Abstract

The high-level cognitive abilities such as attention and working memory develop throughout childhood and adolescence. Neuroimaging studies have shown that several brain regions including areas in the prefrontal (PFC) and parietal cortices play an important role in cognitive control. The prolonged maturation of the PFC and related networks may underlie the immature cognitive control abilities in children. In this thesis, functional magnetic resonance imaging and 1-back WM tasks were used to investigate 1) top-down modulation of brain activity in cortical areas related to visual information processing and 2) functional connectivity of resting state and task-related brain networks in healthy 7-11-year-old children and young adults. The tasks required the subjects to attend to either face or scene stimuli and to ignore distracting scene or face images, respectively. Studies I and II of this thesis found weaker or otherwise immature top-down modulation of the face processing-related visual association cortices that could partially be explained by the observed weaker functional connectivity between the PFC and the visual association cortex in the typically developing 7–11-year-old children compared to the young adults. Moreover, there were age-dependent differences in the recruitment of the PFC during visual working memory tasks. These age-dependent differences between the two groups are in line with the observed differences in the performance of the working memory tasks that was poorer in children than young adults. Study III showed that the 7-11-year-old children have already established an adult-like pattern of resting state networks, but especially during task performance, the functional connectivity within and between these networks differed from that in young adults. The group differences observed in the brain activation and functional connectivity are likely partly related to the morphological developmental state of the grey- and white matter in the 7–11-year-old children (i.e., the ongoing synaptic pruning and myelination of axons that continue up to young adulthood). The findings of this thesis conform to the suggestion that during development, the function of brain regions, especially the PFC, and the functional connectivity of brain networks, undergo dynamic changes, and that the same cognitive function may rely on different brain networks at different ages.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationHelsinki
Publisher
Print ISBNs978-951-51-3495-0
Electronic ISBNs978-951-51-3496-7
Publication statusPublished - 2017
MoE publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)

Fields of Science

  • 3112 Neurosciences
  • 3111 Biomedicine
  • 1184 Genetics, developmental biology, physiology

Cite this

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title = "Working memory related brain activity and networks in typically developing children and young adults",
abstract = "The high-level cognitive abilities such as attention and working memory develop throughout childhood and adolescence. Neuroimaging studies have shown that several brain regions including areas in the prefrontal (PFC) and parietal cortices play an important role in cognitive control. The prolonged maturation of the PFC and related networks may underlie the immature cognitive control abilities in children. In this thesis, functional magnetic resonance imaging and 1-back WM tasks were used to investigate 1) top-down modulation of brain activity in cortical areas related to visual information processing and 2) functional connectivity of resting state and task-related brain networks in healthy 7-11-year-old children and young adults. The tasks required the subjects to attend to either face or scene stimuli and to ignore distracting scene or face images, respectively. Studies I and II of this thesis found weaker or otherwise immature top-down modulation of the face processing-related visual association cortices that could partially be explained by the observed weaker functional connectivity between the PFC and the visual association cortex in the typically developing 7–11-year-old children compared to the young adults. Moreover, there were age-dependent differences in the recruitment of the PFC during visual working memory tasks. These age-dependent differences between the two groups are in line with the observed differences in the performance of the working memory tasks that was poorer in children than young adults. Study III showed that the 7-11-year-old children have already established an adult-like pattern of resting state networks, but especially during task performance, the functional connectivity within and between these networks differed from that in young adults. The group differences observed in the brain activation and functional connectivity are likely partly related to the morphological developmental state of the grey- and white matter in the 7–11-year-old children (i.e., the ongoing synaptic pruning and myelination of axons that continue up to young adulthood). The findings of this thesis conform to the suggestion that during development, the function of brain regions, especially the PFC, and the functional connectivity of brain networks, undergo dynamic changes, and that the same cognitive function may rely on different brain networks at different ages.",
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author = "Ping Jiang",
note = "M1 - 95 s. + liitteet Volume: Proceeding volume:",
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Working memory related brain activity and networks in typically developing children and young adults. / Jiang, Ping.

Helsinki : [P. Jiang], 2017. 95 p.

Research output: ThesisDoctoral ThesisCollection of Articles

TY - THES

T1 - Working memory related brain activity and networks in typically developing children and young adults

AU - Jiang, Ping

N1 - M1 - 95 s. + liitteet Volume: Proceeding volume:

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - The high-level cognitive abilities such as attention and working memory develop throughout childhood and adolescence. Neuroimaging studies have shown that several brain regions including areas in the prefrontal (PFC) and parietal cortices play an important role in cognitive control. The prolonged maturation of the PFC and related networks may underlie the immature cognitive control abilities in children. In this thesis, functional magnetic resonance imaging and 1-back WM tasks were used to investigate 1) top-down modulation of brain activity in cortical areas related to visual information processing and 2) functional connectivity of resting state and task-related brain networks in healthy 7-11-year-old children and young adults. The tasks required the subjects to attend to either face or scene stimuli and to ignore distracting scene or face images, respectively. Studies I and II of this thesis found weaker or otherwise immature top-down modulation of the face processing-related visual association cortices that could partially be explained by the observed weaker functional connectivity between the PFC and the visual association cortex in the typically developing 7–11-year-old children compared to the young adults. Moreover, there were age-dependent differences in the recruitment of the PFC during visual working memory tasks. These age-dependent differences between the two groups are in line with the observed differences in the performance of the working memory tasks that was poorer in children than young adults. Study III showed that the 7-11-year-old children have already established an adult-like pattern of resting state networks, but especially during task performance, the functional connectivity within and between these networks differed from that in young adults. The group differences observed in the brain activation and functional connectivity are likely partly related to the morphological developmental state of the grey- and white matter in the 7–11-year-old children (i.e., the ongoing synaptic pruning and myelination of axons that continue up to young adulthood). The findings of this thesis conform to the suggestion that during development, the function of brain regions, especially the PFC, and the functional connectivity of brain networks, undergo dynamic changes, and that the same cognitive function may rely on different brain networks at different ages.

AB - The high-level cognitive abilities such as attention and working memory develop throughout childhood and adolescence. Neuroimaging studies have shown that several brain regions including areas in the prefrontal (PFC) and parietal cortices play an important role in cognitive control. The prolonged maturation of the PFC and related networks may underlie the immature cognitive control abilities in children. In this thesis, functional magnetic resonance imaging and 1-back WM tasks were used to investigate 1) top-down modulation of brain activity in cortical areas related to visual information processing and 2) functional connectivity of resting state and task-related brain networks in healthy 7-11-year-old children and young adults. The tasks required the subjects to attend to either face or scene stimuli and to ignore distracting scene or face images, respectively. Studies I and II of this thesis found weaker or otherwise immature top-down modulation of the face processing-related visual association cortices that could partially be explained by the observed weaker functional connectivity between the PFC and the visual association cortex in the typically developing 7–11-year-old children compared to the young adults. Moreover, there were age-dependent differences in the recruitment of the PFC during visual working memory tasks. These age-dependent differences between the two groups are in line with the observed differences in the performance of the working memory tasks that was poorer in children than young adults. Study III showed that the 7-11-year-old children have already established an adult-like pattern of resting state networks, but especially during task performance, the functional connectivity within and between these networks differed from that in young adults. The group differences observed in the brain activation and functional connectivity are likely partly related to the morphological developmental state of the grey- and white matter in the 7–11-year-old children (i.e., the ongoing synaptic pruning and myelination of axons that continue up to young adulthood). The findings of this thesis conform to the suggestion that during development, the function of brain regions, especially the PFC, and the functional connectivity of brain networks, undergo dynamic changes, and that the same cognitive function may rely on different brain networks at different ages.

KW - Adult

KW - Attention

KW - +physiology

KW - Brain Mapping

KW - Cerebral Cortex

KW - Child

KW - Child Development

KW - Magnetic Resonance Imaging

KW - Memory, Short-Term

KW - Nerve Net

KW - Neural Pathways

KW - +growth & development

KW - Neuronal Plasticity

KW - Occipital Lobe

KW - Parahippocampal Gyrus

KW - Pattern Recognition, Visual

KW - Prefrontal Cortex

KW - Temporal Lobe

KW - Visual Cortex

KW - 3112 Neurosciences

KW - 3111 Biomedicine

KW - 1184 Genetics, developmental biology, physiology

M3 - Doctoral Thesis

SN - 978-951-51-3495-0

PB - [P. Jiang]

CY - Helsinki

ER -