Changes in leisure-time physical activity, functioning, work disability and retirement : a follow-up study among employees

Ansku Holstila

Tutkimustuotos: OpinnäyteVäitöskirjaArtikkelikokoelma

Kuvaus

Physical inactivity is a significant risk factor for non-communicable diseases. It has also been associated with a decline in functioning and a higher risk of work disability. However, there is limited evidence concerning the causes and consequences of changes in physical activity. Most Finnish adults of working age do not meet the recommendations for health-enhancing physical activity, and people tend to become less physically active as they age. Increasing activity levels among older age groups could enhance functioning and work ability among the ageing population. The aim of this thesis was, first, to examine how changes in physical activity are associated with subsequent health functioning, sickness absence and disability retirement. The physical and mental health functioning and sickness absence attributable to musculoskeletal and mental causes were examined separately. Second, the intention was to investigate how physical activity changes after the transition to statutory retirement and during post-retirement years. The research was part of the Helsinki Health Study being carried out at the Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki. The baseline surveys were conducted in 2000-2002 (N=8,960, response rate 67%) among employees of the City of Helsinki aged 40-60. The employees who responded to the baseline survey were followed up in two later surveys, meanwhile the cohort aged and some of the employees retired. The phase-2 follow-up survey was conducted in 2007 (N=7,332, response rate 83%) and phase 3 in 2012 (N=6,814, response rate 79%). The survey data were linked with register data on sickness absence from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland, and on disability retirement from the Finnish Centre for Pensions among those who consented to the register linkage (N=6,606). The register data on sickness absence and disability retirement includes medically confirmed diagnoses. Sickness absence periods were followed up from phase 2 until 2009, and disability retirement from phase 2 until 2013. Increased physical activity was associated with better physical health functioning and decreased activity with worse physical health functioning. There were fewer associations between changes in physical activity and mental health functioning. Increases in physical activity were associated with a lower risk of sickness absence. Vigorous physical activity was especially beneficial for physical health functioning and contributed to a lower risk of sickness absence attributable to musculoskeletal diseases. In contrast, a higher intensity of physical activity had less of an effect on mental functioning and sickness absence attributable to mental causes. In some cases, moderate-intensity physical activity was more beneficial to mental health functioning than higher-intensity activity. In addition, adopting vigorous physical activity was associated with a lower risk of disability retirement, and decreasing the intensity from vigorous to moderate or low was associated with a higher risk. Physical activity increased after the transition to statutory retirement, but declined a few years after retirement. Given the results of this study, ageing employees and retirees engaging in a low level of physical activity should be encouraged to increase the level. Vigorous activity could also be promoted, at least among healthy individuals. The transition to statutory retirement is a good opportunity to promote physical activity and thereby facilitate a change for the better. It is also important to support the maintenance of physical activity in the years following the transition to retirement.
Alkuperäiskielienglanti
JulkaisupaikkaHelsinki
Kustantaja
Painoksen ISBN978-951-51-3515-5
Sähköinen ISBN978-951-51-3516-2
TilaJulkaistu - 2017
OKM-julkaisutyyppiG5 Tohtorinväitöskirja (artikkeli)

Tieteenalat

  • Exercise
  • Leisure Activities
  • Mental Disorders
  • +prevention & control
  • Musculoskeletal Diseases
  • Physical Exertion
  • Retirement
  • Sick Leave
  • Sports
  • 3142 Kansanterveystiede, ympäristö ja työterveys

Lainaa tätä

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title = "Changes in leisure-time physical activity, functioning, work disability and retirement : a follow-up study among employees",
abstract = "Physical inactivity is a significant risk factor for non-communicable diseases. It has also been associated with a decline in functioning and a higher risk of work disability. However, there is limited evidence concerning the causes and consequences of changes in physical activity. Most Finnish adults of working age do not meet the recommendations for health-enhancing physical activity, and people tend to become less physically active as they age. Increasing activity levels among older age groups could enhance functioning and work ability among the ageing population. The aim of this thesis was, first, to examine how changes in physical activity are associated with subsequent health functioning, sickness absence and disability retirement. The physical and mental health functioning and sickness absence attributable to musculoskeletal and mental causes were examined separately. Second, the intention was to investigate how physical activity changes after the transition to statutory retirement and during post-retirement years. The research was part of the Helsinki Health Study being carried out at the Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki. The baseline surveys were conducted in 2000-2002 (N=8,960, response rate 67{\%}) among employees of the City of Helsinki aged 40-60. The employees who responded to the baseline survey were followed up in two later surveys, meanwhile the cohort aged and some of the employees retired. The phase-2 follow-up survey was conducted in 2007 (N=7,332, response rate 83{\%}) and phase 3 in 2012 (N=6,814, response rate 79{\%}). The survey data were linked with register data on sickness absence from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland, and on disability retirement from the Finnish Centre for Pensions among those who consented to the register linkage (N=6,606). The register data on sickness absence and disability retirement includes medically confirmed diagnoses. Sickness absence periods were followed up from phase 2 until 2009, and disability retirement from phase 2 until 2013. Increased physical activity was associated with better physical health functioning and decreased activity with worse physical health functioning. There were fewer associations between changes in physical activity and mental health functioning. Increases in physical activity were associated with a lower risk of sickness absence. Vigorous physical activity was especially beneficial for physical health functioning and contributed to a lower risk of sickness absence attributable to musculoskeletal diseases. In contrast, a higher intensity of physical activity had less of an effect on mental functioning and sickness absence attributable to mental causes. In some cases, moderate-intensity physical activity was more beneficial to mental health functioning than higher-intensity activity. In addition, adopting vigorous physical activity was associated with a lower risk of disability retirement, and decreasing the intensity from vigorous to moderate or low was associated with a higher risk. Physical activity increased after the transition to statutory retirement, but declined a few years after retirement. Given the results of this study, ageing employees and retirees engaging in a low level of physical activity should be encouraged to increase the level. Vigorous activity could also be promoted, at least among healthy individuals. The transition to statutory retirement is a good opportunity to promote physical activity and thereby facilitate a change for the better. It is also important to support the maintenance of physical activity in the years following the transition to retirement.",
keywords = "Exercise, Leisure Activities, Mental Disorders, +prevention & control, Musculoskeletal Diseases, Physical Exertion, Retirement, Sick Leave, Sports, 3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health",
author = "Ansku Holstila",
note = "M1 - 73 s. + liitteet Volume: Proceeding volume:",
year = "2017",
language = "English",
isbn = "978-951-51-3515-5",
series = "Dissertationes Scholae Doctoralis Ad Sanitatem Investigandam Universitatis Helsinkiensis",
publisher = "Helsingin yliopisto",
number = "44/2017",
address = "Finland",

}

Changes in leisure-time physical activity, functioning, work disability and retirement : a follow-up study among employees. / Holstila, Ansku.

Helsinki : Helsingin yliopisto, 2017. 73 s.

Tutkimustuotos: OpinnäyteVäitöskirjaArtikkelikokoelma

TY - THES

T1 - Changes in leisure-time physical activity, functioning, work disability and retirement : a follow-up study among employees

AU - Holstila, Ansku

N1 - M1 - 73 s. + liitteet Volume: Proceeding volume:

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Physical inactivity is a significant risk factor for non-communicable diseases. It has also been associated with a decline in functioning and a higher risk of work disability. However, there is limited evidence concerning the causes and consequences of changes in physical activity. Most Finnish adults of working age do not meet the recommendations for health-enhancing physical activity, and people tend to become less physically active as they age. Increasing activity levels among older age groups could enhance functioning and work ability among the ageing population. The aim of this thesis was, first, to examine how changes in physical activity are associated with subsequent health functioning, sickness absence and disability retirement. The physical and mental health functioning and sickness absence attributable to musculoskeletal and mental causes were examined separately. Second, the intention was to investigate how physical activity changes after the transition to statutory retirement and during post-retirement years. The research was part of the Helsinki Health Study being carried out at the Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki. The baseline surveys were conducted in 2000-2002 (N=8,960, response rate 67%) among employees of the City of Helsinki aged 40-60. The employees who responded to the baseline survey were followed up in two later surveys, meanwhile the cohort aged and some of the employees retired. The phase-2 follow-up survey was conducted in 2007 (N=7,332, response rate 83%) and phase 3 in 2012 (N=6,814, response rate 79%). The survey data were linked with register data on sickness absence from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland, and on disability retirement from the Finnish Centre for Pensions among those who consented to the register linkage (N=6,606). The register data on sickness absence and disability retirement includes medically confirmed diagnoses. Sickness absence periods were followed up from phase 2 until 2009, and disability retirement from phase 2 until 2013. Increased physical activity was associated with better physical health functioning and decreased activity with worse physical health functioning. There were fewer associations between changes in physical activity and mental health functioning. Increases in physical activity were associated with a lower risk of sickness absence. Vigorous physical activity was especially beneficial for physical health functioning and contributed to a lower risk of sickness absence attributable to musculoskeletal diseases. In contrast, a higher intensity of physical activity had less of an effect on mental functioning and sickness absence attributable to mental causes. In some cases, moderate-intensity physical activity was more beneficial to mental health functioning than higher-intensity activity. In addition, adopting vigorous physical activity was associated with a lower risk of disability retirement, and decreasing the intensity from vigorous to moderate or low was associated with a higher risk. Physical activity increased after the transition to statutory retirement, but declined a few years after retirement. Given the results of this study, ageing employees and retirees engaging in a low level of physical activity should be encouraged to increase the level. Vigorous activity could also be promoted, at least among healthy individuals. The transition to statutory retirement is a good opportunity to promote physical activity and thereby facilitate a change for the better. It is also important to support the maintenance of physical activity in the years following the transition to retirement.

AB - Physical inactivity is a significant risk factor for non-communicable diseases. It has also been associated with a decline in functioning and a higher risk of work disability. However, there is limited evidence concerning the causes and consequences of changes in physical activity. Most Finnish adults of working age do not meet the recommendations for health-enhancing physical activity, and people tend to become less physically active as they age. Increasing activity levels among older age groups could enhance functioning and work ability among the ageing population. The aim of this thesis was, first, to examine how changes in physical activity are associated with subsequent health functioning, sickness absence and disability retirement. The physical and mental health functioning and sickness absence attributable to musculoskeletal and mental causes were examined separately. Second, the intention was to investigate how physical activity changes after the transition to statutory retirement and during post-retirement years. The research was part of the Helsinki Health Study being carried out at the Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki. The baseline surveys were conducted in 2000-2002 (N=8,960, response rate 67%) among employees of the City of Helsinki aged 40-60. The employees who responded to the baseline survey were followed up in two later surveys, meanwhile the cohort aged and some of the employees retired. The phase-2 follow-up survey was conducted in 2007 (N=7,332, response rate 83%) and phase 3 in 2012 (N=6,814, response rate 79%). The survey data were linked with register data on sickness absence from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland, and on disability retirement from the Finnish Centre for Pensions among those who consented to the register linkage (N=6,606). The register data on sickness absence and disability retirement includes medically confirmed diagnoses. Sickness absence periods were followed up from phase 2 until 2009, and disability retirement from phase 2 until 2013. Increased physical activity was associated with better physical health functioning and decreased activity with worse physical health functioning. There were fewer associations between changes in physical activity and mental health functioning. Increases in physical activity were associated with a lower risk of sickness absence. Vigorous physical activity was especially beneficial for physical health functioning and contributed to a lower risk of sickness absence attributable to musculoskeletal diseases. In contrast, a higher intensity of physical activity had less of an effect on mental functioning and sickness absence attributable to mental causes. In some cases, moderate-intensity physical activity was more beneficial to mental health functioning than higher-intensity activity. In addition, adopting vigorous physical activity was associated with a lower risk of disability retirement, and decreasing the intensity from vigorous to moderate or low was associated with a higher risk. Physical activity increased after the transition to statutory retirement, but declined a few years after retirement. Given the results of this study, ageing employees and retirees engaging in a low level of physical activity should be encouraged to increase the level. Vigorous activity could also be promoted, at least among healthy individuals. The transition to statutory retirement is a good opportunity to promote physical activity and thereby facilitate a change for the better. It is also important to support the maintenance of physical activity in the years following the transition to retirement.

KW - Exercise

KW - Leisure Activities

KW - Mental Disorders

KW - +prevention & control

KW - Musculoskeletal Diseases

KW - Physical Exertion

KW - Retirement

KW - Sick Leave

KW - Sports

KW - 3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health

M3 - Doctoral Thesis

SN - 978-951-51-3515-5

T3 - Dissertationes Scholae Doctoralis Ad Sanitatem Investigandam Universitatis Helsinkiensis

PB - Helsingin yliopisto

CY - Helsinki

ER -

Holstila A. Changes in leisure-time physical activity, functioning, work disability and retirement : a follow-up study among employees. Helsinki: Helsingin yliopisto, 2017. 73 s. (Dissertationes Scholae Doctoralis Ad Sanitatem Investigandam Universitatis Helsinkiensis; 44/2017).