Changes to the Water Balance Over a Century of Urban Development in Two Neighborhoods: Vancouver, Canada

T. V. Kokkonen, C. S. B. Grimmond, A. Christen, T. R. Oke, L. Järvi

Tutkimustuotos: ArtikkelijulkaisuArtikkeliTieteellinenvertaisarvioitu

Kuvaus

Hydrological cycles of two suburban neighborhoods in Vancouver, BC, during initial urban development and subsequent urban densification (1920-2010) are examined using the Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme. The two neighborhoods have different surface characteristics (as determined from aerial photographs) which impact the hydrological processes. Unlike previous studies of the effect of urbanization on the local hydrology, densification of already built lots is explored with a focus on the neighborhood scale. Human behavioral changes to irrigation are accounted for in the simulations. Irrigation is the dominant factor, accounting for up to 56% of the water input on an annual basis in the study areas. This may surpass garden needs and go to runoff. Irrigating once a week would provide sufficient water for the garden. Without irrigation, evaporation would have decreased over the 91years at a rate of up to 1.4mm/year and runoff increased at 4.0mm/year with the increase in impervious cover. Similarly without irrigation, the ratio of sensible heat flux to the available energy would have increased over the 91years at a rate of up to 0.003 per year. Urbanization and densification cause an increase in runoff and increase risk of surface flooding. Small daily runoff events with short return periods have increased over the century, whereas the occurrence of heavy daily runoff events (return period>52 days) are not affected. The results can help us to understand the dominant factors in the suburban hydrological cycle and can inform urban planning.

Alkuperäiskielienglanti
LehtiWater Resources Research
Vuosikerta54
Numero9
Sivut6625-6642
Sivumäärä18
ISSN0043-1397
DOI - pysyväislinkit
TilaJulkaistu - syyskuuta 2018
OKM-julkaisutyyppiA1 Alkuperäisartikkeli tieteellisessä aikakauslehdessä, vertaisarvioitu

Tieteenalat

  • 1172 Ympäristötiede

Lainaa tätä

Kokkonen, T. V. ; Grimmond, C. S. B. ; Christen, A. ; Oke, T. R. ; Järvi, L. / Changes to the Water Balance Over a Century of Urban Development in Two Neighborhoods: Vancouver, Canada. Julkaisussa: Water Resources Research. 2018 ; Vuosikerta 54, Nro 9. Sivut 6625-6642.
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title = "Changes to the Water Balance Over a Century of Urban Development in Two Neighborhoods: Vancouver, Canada",
abstract = "Hydrological cycles of two suburban neighborhoods in Vancouver, BC, during initial urban development and subsequent urban densification (1920-2010) are examined using the Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme. The two neighborhoods have different surface characteristics (as determined from aerial photographs) which impact the hydrological processes. Unlike previous studies of the effect of urbanization on the local hydrology, densification of already built lots is explored with a focus on the neighborhood scale. Human behavioral changes to irrigation are accounted for in the simulations. Irrigation is the dominant factor, accounting for up to 56{\%} of the water input on an annual basis in the study areas. This may surpass garden needs and go to runoff. Irrigating once a week would provide sufficient water for the garden. Without irrigation, evaporation would have decreased over the 91years at a rate of up to 1.4mm/year and runoff increased at 4.0mm/year with the increase in impervious cover. Similarly without irrigation, the ratio of sensible heat flux to the available energy would have increased over the 91years at a rate of up to 0.003 per year. Urbanization and densification cause an increase in runoff and increase risk of surface flooding. Small daily runoff events with short return periods have increased over the century, whereas the occurrence of heavy daily runoff events (return period>52 days) are not affected. The results can help us to understand the dominant factors in the suburban hydrological cycle and can inform urban planning.",
keywords = "1172 Environmental sciences, SUEWS, urban hydrology, urbanization, densification, WATCH, urban hydrometeorology, SUBURBAN ENERGY-BALANCE, SCHEME SUEWS, MODEL, CLIMATE, RUNOFF, AREAS, EVAPOTRANSPIRATION, URBANIZATION, VEGETATION, IMPACT",
author = "Kokkonen, {T. V.} and Grimmond, {C. S. B.} and A. Christen and Oke, {T. R.} and L. J{\"a}rvi",
year = "2018",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1029/2017WR022445",
language = "English",
volume = "54",
pages = "6625--6642",
journal = "Water Resources Research",
issn = "0043-1397",
publisher = "American Geophysical Union",
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Changes to the Water Balance Over a Century of Urban Development in Two Neighborhoods: Vancouver, Canada. / Kokkonen, T. V.; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Christen, A.; Oke, T. R.; Järvi, L.

julkaisussa: Water Resources Research, Vuosikerta 54, Nro 9, 09.2018, s. 6625-6642.

Tutkimustuotos: ArtikkelijulkaisuArtikkeliTieteellinenvertaisarvioitu

TY - JOUR

T1 - Changes to the Water Balance Over a Century of Urban Development in Two Neighborhoods: Vancouver, Canada

AU - Kokkonen, T. V.

AU - Grimmond, C. S. B.

AU - Christen, A.

AU - Oke, T. R.

AU - Järvi, L.

PY - 2018/9

Y1 - 2018/9

N2 - Hydrological cycles of two suburban neighborhoods in Vancouver, BC, during initial urban development and subsequent urban densification (1920-2010) are examined using the Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme. The two neighborhoods have different surface characteristics (as determined from aerial photographs) which impact the hydrological processes. Unlike previous studies of the effect of urbanization on the local hydrology, densification of already built lots is explored with a focus on the neighborhood scale. Human behavioral changes to irrigation are accounted for in the simulations. Irrigation is the dominant factor, accounting for up to 56% of the water input on an annual basis in the study areas. This may surpass garden needs and go to runoff. Irrigating once a week would provide sufficient water for the garden. Without irrigation, evaporation would have decreased over the 91years at a rate of up to 1.4mm/year and runoff increased at 4.0mm/year with the increase in impervious cover. Similarly without irrigation, the ratio of sensible heat flux to the available energy would have increased over the 91years at a rate of up to 0.003 per year. Urbanization and densification cause an increase in runoff and increase risk of surface flooding. Small daily runoff events with short return periods have increased over the century, whereas the occurrence of heavy daily runoff events (return period>52 days) are not affected. The results can help us to understand the dominant factors in the suburban hydrological cycle and can inform urban planning.

AB - Hydrological cycles of two suburban neighborhoods in Vancouver, BC, during initial urban development and subsequent urban densification (1920-2010) are examined using the Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme. The two neighborhoods have different surface characteristics (as determined from aerial photographs) which impact the hydrological processes. Unlike previous studies of the effect of urbanization on the local hydrology, densification of already built lots is explored with a focus on the neighborhood scale. Human behavioral changes to irrigation are accounted for in the simulations. Irrigation is the dominant factor, accounting for up to 56% of the water input on an annual basis in the study areas. This may surpass garden needs and go to runoff. Irrigating once a week would provide sufficient water for the garden. Without irrigation, evaporation would have decreased over the 91years at a rate of up to 1.4mm/year and runoff increased at 4.0mm/year with the increase in impervious cover. Similarly without irrigation, the ratio of sensible heat flux to the available energy would have increased over the 91years at a rate of up to 0.003 per year. Urbanization and densification cause an increase in runoff and increase risk of surface flooding. Small daily runoff events with short return periods have increased over the century, whereas the occurrence of heavy daily runoff events (return period>52 days) are not affected. The results can help us to understand the dominant factors in the suburban hydrological cycle and can inform urban planning.

KW - 1172 Environmental sciences

KW - SUEWS

KW - urban hydrology

KW - urbanization

KW - densification

KW - WATCH

KW - urban hydrometeorology

KW - SUBURBAN ENERGY-BALANCE

KW - SCHEME SUEWS

KW - MODEL

KW - CLIMATE

KW - RUNOFF

KW - AREAS

KW - EVAPOTRANSPIRATION

KW - URBANIZATION

KW - VEGETATION

KW - IMPACT

U2 - 10.1029/2017WR022445

DO - 10.1029/2017WR022445

M3 - Article

VL - 54

SP - 6625

EP - 6642

JO - Water Resources Research

JF - Water Resources Research

SN - 0043-1397

IS - 9

ER -